Anatomy Exam 1
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What is the meaning of Anterior (ventral)?
Towards the front of the body
What is the meaning of Posterior (Dorsal)?
Towards the back of the body
What is the meaning of Superior (cephalic)?
Towards the head
What is the meaning of Interior (caudal)?
Towards the bottom of the feet
What is the meaning of Lateral?
Further from the median plane
Whats is the meaning of Medial?
Closer to the median plane
What is the meaning of Distal?
Further from the origin or attachment
What is the meaning of Proximal?
Nearer from the origin or attachment
What is the meaning of Superficial?
Towards the surface of the body part
What is the meaning of Deep?
Towards the center of the body part
Where is the Sagittal plane located?
Its a vertical plane which passes from ventral (front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into right and left halves.
Where is the Frontal (coronal) plane located?
It lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Where is the Transverse (horizontal) plane located?
It runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and interior parts
Where is the Dorsal (Posterior) Cavity & Organs located?
Its subdivided into a cranial cavity, which lies in the skull and encases the brain
Where is the Ventral (Anterior) Cavities & Organs located?
The more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities such as the lungs, heart, intestines, and kidneys
Describe Simple Squamous and it's function and location?
- Description- Single layer of flattened cells
- Function- Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration
- Location- Kidney glomeruli
Describe Simple Cuboidal and it's function and location?
- Description- Its a single layer of cubelike cells
- Function- Secretion and absorptions
- Location- Kidney tubules
Describe Simple Columnar and it's function and location?
- Description- Single layer of tall cells
- Function- Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substances
- Location- Stomach to anal canal
Describe Stratified Squamous and its function and location?
- Description- Thick membrane composed of several cell layers
- Function- Protects undying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
- Location- The esophagus and mouth
Describe Pseudostratified Columnar and its function and location?
- Description- Single layer of cells of different heights
- Function- Secretion, particularly of mucus
- Location- Trachea
Describe Transitional Epithelium and it's function and location?
- Description- Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal
- Function- Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
- Location- Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra
Describe Loose Areolar Connective Tissue and its function and location?
- Description- Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types
- Function- Wraps and cushions organs
- Location- Widely distributed under epithelia of the body
Describe Adipose Tissue and its function and location?
- Description- Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes
- Function- Provides reserved food fuel
- Location- Under skin in the hypodermis
Describe Reticular Connective Tissue and its function and location?
- Description- Network of reticular fibers in typical loose ground substance
- Function- Fibers forms a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells
- Location- Lymphoid organs (spleen)
Describe Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Usually run in the same direction, parallel to the direction of pull
Describe Dense Irregular Connective Tissue?
Its similar to areolar tissue, but its collagen fibers are much thicker
Describe Hyaline Cartilage and it's function and location?
- Description- Amorphous but firm matrix
- Function- Supports and reinforces; has resists cushioning properties
- Location- Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones
Describe Elastic Cartilage and it's function and location?
- Description- Similar to hyaline cartilage but more elastic fibers in matrix
- Function- Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
- Location- Supports the external ear
Describe Fibrocartilage and it's function and location?
- Description-Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate
- Function- Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
- Location- Intervertebral discs
Describe Osseous bone tissue and its function and location?
- Description-Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers
- Function- Bone support and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on
- Location- Bones
Describe Blood and it's function and location?
- Description- Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
- Function- Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
- Location- Contained within blood vessels
Describe Skeletal Muscle and what is it's function and location?
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