304 ch7.txt

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tuchiyama10
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304 ch7.txt
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2013-02-11 22:02:37
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  1. Motivation
    The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  2. Hierarchy of needs
    • Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
    • As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need become dominant
    • Physiological needs at the bottom of the pyramid
  3. Lower-order needs
    Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs
  4. Self-actualization
    The drive to become what a person is capable of becoming
  5. Higher-order needs
    Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs
  6. Theory X
    The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
  7. Theory Y
    The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
  8. Two-factor theory
    • A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
    • A.k.a. motivation-hygiene theory
  9. Hygiene factors
    • Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers
    • When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied
  10. McClelland’s theory of needs
    A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
  11. Need for achievement (nAch)
    The drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
  12. Need for power (nPow)
    The need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have bothered otherwise
  13. Need for affiliation (nAff)
    The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  14. Self-determination theory
    A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation
  15. Cognitive evaluation theory
    A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling
  16. Self-concordance
    The degree to which peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values
  17. Job engagement
    The investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance
  18. Goal-setting theory
    A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
  19. Management by objectives (MBO)
    A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
  20. Self-efficacy
    An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
  21. Reinforcement theory
    A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequence
  22. Behaviorism
    A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner
  23. Social-learning theory
    The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience
  24. Equity theory
    A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
  25. Distributive justice
    Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
  26. Organizational justice
    An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
  27. Procedural justice
    The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
  28. Interactional justice
    The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect
  29. Expectancy theory
    A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual

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