Granules, Lozenges/Troches, Medication Sticks

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Granules, Lozenges/Troches, Medication Sticks
2013-02-12 05:55:57
DD3 Exam

Dr. Sant
Show Answers:

  1. how to make granules
    take a powder, moisten it, sieve the wet mass and dry
  2. effervescent granules
    weak acid + base mixture (i.e. citric/tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonat/bisphosphonate)

    produce CO2 in water
  3. inert bases used in dusting powders
    talc, starch, Mg carbonate, bentonite, kaolin
  4. comminution
    particle size reduction
  5. method of comminution for tough, fibrous material
    mill, grinder
  6. method of comminution for hard, fracturable material
  7. method of comminution for gummy material
  8. used for large scale mixing
    cone, ribbon, bin blenders
  9. used for small scale mixing
    spatulation, geometric mixing
  10. Mesh number for topical powders
    #100 mesh
  11. type of powder not to use on oozing wounds
    highly sorptive
  12. what are eutectics?
    they soften or liquefy
  13. examples of eutectics?
    menthol, phenol, salicylic acid, phenyl salicylate, benzocaine, lidocaine
  14. how to triturate eutectics
    • lightly with spatula (not mortar and pestle)
    • use bulky adsorbents
  15. bulky adsorbent examples
    Mg oxide and Mg carbonate
  16. deliquescents
    liquefy with moisture
  17. examples of deliquescent and hygroscopic powders
    Ca chloride, sodium iodide, lithium bromide, ephedrine sulfate, pilocarpine alkaloid
  18. efflorescent powders
    • release water during manipulation
    • these powders are sticky so you need an anhydrous salt or a dry bulky powder
  19. what are desiccant packs made of?
    hygroscopic and deliquescent powders
  20. examples of efflorescent powders
    caffeine, atropine sulfate, citric acid, ferrous sulfate, sodium phosphate
  21. oxidizing agents
    (di)chromates, hypochlorites, nitrates, peroxides
  22. reducing agents
    alcohol, bisulfites, iodides, tannins, volatile oils
  23. liquids incorporated into powders by
    • adsorption onto inert material (i.e. lactose)
    • geometric mixing
    • spraying evenly onto the powder
  24. aciduents
    • citric acid
    • tartaric acid
    • fumaric acid
    • maleic acid
  25. base of soft lozenges
    polyethylene glycol
  26. lozenge binders
    • acacia
    • carboxymethyl cellulose sodium
    • gelatin
    • PEG
    • starch
    • syrup
  27. base of soft opaque sticks
    • petrolatum
    • cocoa butter
    • PEG
    • waxes/oils
  28. base of soft clear sticks
    • sodium stearate
    • propylene glycol
    • water/alcohol
    • glycerin mixture
  29. base of hard sticks
    • crystalline powders fused together by heat
    • cocoa butter or petrolatum used as binder
  30. waxes of the sticks
    need to mix high and low melting point waxes
  31. physicochemical considerations for oils
    • vegetable oils: rancid
    • caster oil: high viscocity
    • Mineral oil: gloss, less solubility
  32. physicochemical considerations for waxes
    • hard waxes have better gloss
    • carnuaba wax - raises melting point
    • beeswax - stiffening agent, dull stick

    cocoa butter melts and body temp and blooms
  33. physicochemical considerations for water soluble bases + examples
    • easy skin removal
    • PEG
    • propylen glycol monesters