CH 8 Test

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CH 8 Test
2009-12-01 15:24:19
Life Span Development Erikson\'s stages

Life Span Development
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  1. Growth
    Increase in size of the whole or its parts.
  2. Development
    • function or the gradual process of change and differentiation, from simple to complex.
    • From simple to complex.
  3. Cephalocaudal (directional term)
    growth and development that proceeds from head toward the feet.
  4. Proximodistal (directional term)
    growth and development that moves from the center toward the outside.
  5. Infancy 1-12 months
    Physical Characteristics
    • Weight: 1.5 lbs per month until 5 months. doubles birth weight by 4-6 months. by 1yr of age, baby triples in weight.
    • Height: 1 inch a month in first 6 months. by 12 months, infants length has increased about 50%.
  6. Infancy 1- 12 months
    Motor Development
    2 months able to hold head up. 4 months can hold head up steadily to 90-degree angle. 6 months can balance the head well. Crawling (abdomen onthe floor) is means on movement. Creeping (hands and knees on floor) starts after 9 months.
  7. Infancy 1-12 months
    Psychosocial Development

    basic trust versus mistrust. Infants learn either to trust or mistrust that significant others will properly care for thier basic needs, including nourishment sucking, warmth, cleanliness, and physical contact.
  8. Toddler 1-3 years
    toilet training
    usu. 18-24 months before children are physiological and psychological maturity to begin toilet training.
  9. Toddler 1-3 years
    Psychosocial Development

    autonomy versus shame and doubt. Children learn either to be self-sufficient in many activities, including toileting, feeding, walking, and talking, or to doubt thier own abilities.
  10. Toddler
    Sleep, play activity, and safety
    • 12 hours sleep each night plus daytime nap.
    • parallel play; need that toddlers have to play alongside of, but not with, peer mates.
    • safety: supervision and education are key 90% of accidents happen in the home.
  11. Preschool 3-5 years
    Cognitive and Intellectual Development

    • initiative versus guilt. children want to undertake many adult-like activities, sometimes going beyond the limits set by parents and feeling guilty because of it.
    • -begin to think logically, believe that wishes can make things happen,
  12. School Age 6-12 years
    Psychosocial Development

    • industry versus inferiority. Children eagerly learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do any task well.
    • - psychosocial: more independence, aware of rules and socialization skills, skills of compromise and challenge are learned.
  13. School Age 6-12 years
    Sleep, play activity, and safety
    • 6 yr olds need 12 hours of sleep. 12 yr olds need 10 hours of sleep.
    • - need adequate exercise to enhance muscle development, coordination, balance, and strength.
    • -TV may have a powerful influence, need to be taught constuctive ways to handle their impluses; may look for revenge
    • -gun safety
  14. Adolescence: 12-19 years
    Psychosocial Development
    • -frequently described as a difficult period or a stormy search for oneself.
    • -changing body, sexual demands, responsibilities, expectations, and questions about values and beliefs.
    • -value of peers is usually significant
  15. Adolescence: 12-19 years
    Cognitive Development
    • - cognitive function reaches maturity
    • - abstract reasoning and systematic scientific problem solving
    • - thoughts can be influenced more by logical principles than by personal perceptions and experiences
    • - can imagine the possible
  16. Adolesence: 12-19 Years
    Health promotion:
    Sleep, play activity, and safety
    • - increased hours of sleep to restore energy levels
    • - growth spurts cause bones to grow more quickly than the muscles and tendons
    • - organized sports help teach adolescents to work with others, meet challenges, and set personal goals
    • - drivers ed, safe sex, water safety,
    • - mood swings occur at this stage
  17. Signs of Depression
    • - change in appetite
    • - change in mood - sad, hopelessness
    • - inability to concentrate
    • - loss of interest in activities
    • - change in sleep habits (always sleeping or unable to sleep)
    • - talk of suicide
    • - preoccupation with death or dying
    • - giving away possessions
  18. Early Adulthood: 20-44
    physical characteristics
    • - optimal level of funcitoning
    • - strength, energy, and endurance are now at thier peak
    • - females reach max height 16-18 years, males 18-20 years, between ages 30-45 height is stable
    • - cardiac output, vital capacities, and organ reserves gradually decrease in middle adulthood
  19. Early Adulthood: 20-44 Years
    Psychosocial Development
    • intimacy versus isolation (Erikson's stage)
    • - usu marry in this stage of life
    • - decisions to start a family
    • - family development and harmony are major goals
    • -
  20. Middle Adulthood: 40-65
    Physical Charateristics
    • - bone mass decreases skeletal growth cells
    • - women lose calcium from bone tissue after menopause
    • - compression of spinal vertebrae result in slight changes in height
    • - decrease in muscle fibers results in reduction of muscle mass
    • - basic neurological remains high during this age period
    • - progressive loss in hearing and vision
    • - most noticeable changes occurs in skin; decrease in elastic fibers and slight loss of subcutaneous tissue giving a wrinkled look
    • - osteoporosis
    • - decreased libido, hair loss, delayed erection for males
  21. Middle Adulthood: 40-65
    Psychosocial Development
    • generativity vs stagnation (Erikson's)
    • - grandparents are either active and involved or isolated and inactive
    • - generativity encourages productivity, continuity, and creativity
    • - teaching and mentorship manifest
  22. Ageism
    form of discrimination and prejudice against the older adult
  23. Theories of Aging
    Autoimmunity theory
    • - with aging the body becomes less able to recognize or tolerate the "self"
    • - increased accumulation of lymphocytes, plasma cells, found in the tissues or normal, healthy, older people.
    • - as the ability of the immune system decreases, the risk of developing infection and cancer increases
  24. Theories of Aging
    Free redical theory
    • - highly reactive cellular components that derive from unstable atoms or molecules
    • - presence of free radicals may accelerate the aging process and result in death of the organism.
    • - accumulation of lipofuscin interfere with the diffusion and transportation of essentail metabolites
  25. Theories of Aging
    Wear-and-tear theory
    • - age is determined by the amount of wear and tear that one experiences
    • - structural and functional changes associated with growing old are accelerated by abuse of the body
  26. Theories of Aging
    Biologic programming theory
    • - hereditary basis for aging
    • - suggested to be a programmed genetic occurence caused by specific genes
    • - progressive environmental damage to cells
  27. Dysphagia
    • - difficulty swallowing
    • - can be caused by stroke, other neurological, local trauma, and obstruction with a tumor
  28. Legislation affecting Older Adults
    • - Social Security Act of 1935
    • 1965 - Medicare and Medicaid established.
    • 1967 - Age Discrimination Act
    • 1972 - Supplemental Security Income
    • 1973 - Council on Again established
    • 1978 - Mandatory retirement changed to 70
    • 1986 - Mandatory retirement age eliminated
    • 1988 - Catastrophic health insurance established as part of Medicare
    • 1990 - Self-Determination Act:
  29. Older Adulthood Age-Related Changes
    Integumentary System
    • - observe skin for signs of excessive dryness, or openings in the skin (tears or lesions)
    • - examin lesions for size, color, shape, pitting
    • - observe for excessive hair loss, dryness or oiliness
    • - observe the nails for colo, length, shape, symmetry, and cleanliness
  30. Older Adulthood Age-Related Changes
    Gastrointestinal System
    • - assess oral cavity for presence of lesions; dental caries; loose broken, or missing teeth; dentures that do not fit well
    • - assess ability to chew and swallow. assess for complaints of heartburn and nausea
    • - assess dietary intake, especially high-fiber foods, fats, adn sodium. assess appetite
    • - assess weight. compare with norms and monitor for significant changes
    • - assess frequency, amount, odor, and consistency of bowel elimination. assess abdomen for tenderness, distention, and active or dimished bowel sounds.
    • - assess individual's ability to control defecation
    • - assess bowel elimination routines and use of laxatives
    • - annual fecal occult blood test is recommended for adults more than 50 years of age
  31. Older Adults Demographics
    • - By 2020 approximately 20% of the population is expected to be older than 65
    • - young older adult: 65-74
    • - middle older adult: 74-85
    • - older older adult: 85+
    • - fastest growing segment of popuation is 85+ age group
  32. Abuse
    Causes of Family Stress
    • - refers to physical, emotional, financial, verbal, or sexual assualt or neglect.
    • - visible factors include: financial strain, social isolation, low self-esteem, previous history of abuse
  33. Types of Families
    Nuclear family
    • - biologic parents and any siblings
    • - with or without children
  34. Types of Families
    Extended family
    • - biologic parents, their children, grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, and other family members...
    • - provides a sharing of responsibilities
  35. Types of Families
    Single-Parent family
    • - family style of choice or result of death, divorce, seperation, or abandonment
    • - more common in recent years
    • - typically adult must perform roles of two people
  36. Types of Families
    Blended (Resconstituted) family
    • - also called the stepfamily
    • - occurs when adults from previous marriages remarry and combine children within a new household
  37. Types of Families
    Socail Contract and Cohabitation
    - consists of a nam and a woman living together without legal commitment but sharing roles and responsibilities
  38. Types of Families
    Homosexual family
    • - involves homosexual partners living together with shared responsibilities
    • - sometimes involves children from a heterosexual relationship or adopted or foster childern
  39. Types of Families
    Adoptive family
    • - usually a family unit of husband and wife with adopted children
    • - childless and infertile couples are lonely and lack fullfillment are usually family units to adopt
  40. Types of Families
    Foster family
    • - the foster family allows for the care, supervision, and nurturing of children whose parents are unable to take care of them.
    • - length of stay in foster home may vary and may be temporary depending on circumstances