Anthropology Midterm

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Jdean84
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199918
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Anthropology Midterm
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2013-02-12 11:55:38
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  1. Subfields of Anthropology
    • Physical/Biological
    • Archaeology
    • Cultural
    • Anthropological Linguistics
    • Applied
  2. The study of humankind from a broad perspective, focusing especially on the biological and cultural differences and similarities among populations and societies of both the past and the present
    Anthropology
  3. the subfield of anthropology that studies the biological aspects of humankind
    Physical/Biological Anthropology
  4. the subfield of Anthropology that specializes in investigating the biological evolution of the human species
    paleoanthropology
  5. the study of primates, including monkeys and apes
    primatology
  6. physical differences among human populations; an interest of physical anthropologists
    human variation
  7. physical anthropologists who identify and analyze human skeletal remains
    forensic anthropologists 
  8. the study of past cultures through the excavation of sites and analysis of material remains to investigate cultures that existed before the development of writing.
    prehistoric archeology
  9. the subfield of archaeology the past of literate peoples through excavation of sites and analysis of artifacts and other material remains
    historic archaeology 
  10. the business in which private companies bid for contracts to excavate archaeological sites on public and private land
    contract archaeology
  11. the subfield of Anthropology that studies the way of life of contemporary and historically recent human populations 
    cultural anthropology
  12. ethnographic research that involves observing and interviewing the members of a culture to describe their contemporary way of life
    fieldwork
  13. a written description of the way of life of some population
    ethnography
  14. the subfield that focuses on the interrelationships among language and other aspects of people's culture
    anthropological linguistics
  15. the subfield of anthropology whose practitioners use anthropological methods, theories, and concepts to solve practical, real world problems; practitioners often are employed by a government agency or private organization.
    applied anthropology
  16. the process through which diverse peoples and nations are integrated into a single system involving flows of technology, transportation, communications, travel, and market exchanges
    globalization
  17. the assumption that any aspect of a culture is integrated with other aspects, so that every aspect of culture must be understood in its total context
    holistic perspective
  18. the insistence by anthropologists that valid hypotheses and theories about humanity be tested with data from a wide range of cultures
    comparative perspective
  19. the notion that one should not judge the behavior of other peoples using the standards of one's own culture
    cultural relativism 
  20. the attitude or opinion that the morals, values, and customs of one's own culture are superior to those of other peoples
    ethnocentrism
  21. shared, socially transmitted knowledge and behavior
    culture
  22. the cultural tradition a group of people recognize as their own; the shared customs and beliefs that define how a group sees itself as distinctive
    cultural identity
  23. a territorially distinct and largely self-perpetuating group whose members have a sense of collective identity and who share a common language and culture
    society
  24. the transmission of culture to succeeding generations by means of social learning
    enculturation 
  25. the behaviors that most people perform when they are in certain culturally defined situations
    patterns of behavior
  26. a social position in a group, with its associated and reciprocal rights (privileges) and duties (obligations)
    role
  27. shared ideas and expectations about how certain people ought to act in given situations
    norms
  28. shared ideas or standards of worthwhileness of goals and lifestyles
    values
  29. objects, behaviors, and so forth whose culturally defined meanings have no necessary relationship to their inherent physical qualities
    symbols
  30. the ways the members of a culture perceive social and natural reality and divide reality into categories that are culturally variable 
    cultural constructions
  31. the way people interpret reality and events, including how they see themselves in relation to the world around them
    world view
  32. the total system of linguistic knowledge that allows the speakers of a language to send meaningful messages and hearers to understand them 
    grammar
  33. a regional or subcultural variant of language
    dialect
  34. the study of the sound system of a language
    phonology
  35. the smallest unit of sound that speakers unconsciously recognize as distinctive from other sounds
    phoneme 
  36. languages in which changing the voice pitch within a word alters the meaning of the word
    tone languages
  37. the study of the units of meaning in a language
    morphology
  38. a combination of phonemes that conveys a standardized meaning
    morpheme
  39. a morpheme that can stand alone as a word
    free morpheme
  40. a morpheme that is attached to a free morpheme to alter its meaning
    bound morpheme
  41. the subfield of cultural anthropology that studies how language is related to culture and the social uses of speech
    sociolinguistics 
  42. a class of things or properties that are perceived as alike in some fundamental respect; hierarchically designed
    semantic domain
  43. the idea that language profoundly shapes the perceptions and world view of its speakers
    sapir-whorf hypothesys
  44. the nineteenth-century theoretical orientation that held that all cultures pass through a similar sequence of stages in their development
    unilineal evolution
  45. the theoretical orientation emphasizing that each culture is a unique result of its distinctive past, which makes cross-cultural generalizations questionable
    historical particularism
  46. the theoretical orientation that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society
    functionalism
  47. the theoretical orientation holding that the main influence on human ways of life is how people produce and distribute resources from their environment
    materialism
  48. those who adopt the contemporary theoretical orientation that culture knowledge and behavior patterns are largely independent of the material conditions of life; they claim that each culture must be analyzed on its own terms and mistrust cross-cultural comparisons
    idealists
  49. the orientation that questions the truth value of beliefs and knowledge, including those of science; focuses especially on how power relationships affect the creation and spread of ideas and beliefs
    postmodernism
  50. methods used by fieldworkers to gather information from a lot of individuals or families very quickly; common survey instruments are censuses and formal questionnares
    surveys
  51. methods of collecting information about a culture by systematic questioning; may be structured (questionnaires) or unstructured (open-ended questions)
    interviews
  52. a member of a society who provides information to a fieldworker, often through formal interviews or surveys
    consultant 
  53. a member of a society who is especially knowledgeable about some subject and supplies information to a fieldworker 
    key consultant
  54. the main technique used in conducting ethnographic fieldwork, involving living among a people and participating in their daily activities
    participant observation
  55. the feeling of uncertainty and anxiety that an individual experiences when placed in a strange cultural setting
    culture shock
  56. adaptation based on harvesting only wild plants and animals
    hunting and gathering
  57. adaptation based primarily on the planting, tending, and harvesting of domesticated plants
    agriculture
  58. adaptation based on the control and breeding of domesticated livestock, which are taken to naturally occurring pastureland 
    herding
  59. the productive technology that harnesses the energy of fossil fuels to satisfy human material needs and wants
    industrialism
  60. a small foraging group with flexible composition that migrates seasonally
    band
  61. the process by which people control the distribution, abundance, and biological features of certain plants and animals in order to increase their usefulness to humans
    domestication
  62. a method of cultivation in which hand tools are powered by human muscles are used
    horticulture
  63. a system of cultivation in which plots are planted annually or semiannually; usually uses irrigation, natural fertilizers, and (in the old world) plows powered by animals
    intensive agriculture
  64. food or other goods produced by a worker in excess of the amount needed for his or her own consumption as well as the needs of his or her dependents
    surplus
  65. a form of complex society in which many people live in cities
    civilization 
  66. rural people who integrated into a larger society politically and economically
    peasants
  67. a form of seasonal mobility, usually referring to pastoral peoples who move their livestock herds to locations with lust pastureland 
    nomadism
  68. the widespread pastoral pattern of migrating to different elevations in response to seasonal differences in temperature and pastureland 
    transhumance 
  69. the process in which companies located in one country relocate their production facilities to other countries to reduce costs and be more competitive
    globalization of production
  70. a group of people who culturally consider themselves to be relatives, cooperate in certain activities, and share a sense of identity as kinfolk
    kin group
  71. a family unit consisting of only parents and children
    nuclear family
  72. a group of related nuclear families that live together in a single household
    extended household
  73. prohibition against sexual intercourse between certain kinds of relatives
    incest taboo
  74. marriage rules that prohibit individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category
    exogamous rules
  75. marriage rules that require individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category
    endogamous rules
  76. the practice in which each individual is allowed to have only 1 spouse at a time
    monogamy
  77. the practice in which one man is allowed to have multiple wives
    polygyny
  78. the practice in which one woman is allowed to have multiple husbands
    polyandry
  79. several women and several men married to one another simultaneously 
    group marriage
  80. the custom in which a prospective groom and his relatives are required to transfer goods to the relatives of the bride to validate the marriage
    bridewealth
  81. the custom in which a man spends a period of time working for the family of his wife
    brideservice
  82. the custom in which the family of a woman transfers property or wealth to her upon her marriage
    dowry
  83. where a newly married couple go to live after their marriage
    postmarital residence pattern
  84. a residence form in which a couple lives with or near the husbands parents
    patrilocal residence
  85. a residence form in which a couple lives with or near the wive's parents
    matrilocal residence
  86. a residence form in which a couple chooses to live with either the wife's or the husband's family
    ambilocal residence
  87. a residence form in which a couple establishes a separate household apart from both the husband's and wife's parents
    neolocal residence
  88. descent through one "line"; includes both patrilineal and matrilineal descent
    unilineal descent
  89. a kinship system in which individuals trace their primary kinship relationships through their fathers
    patrilineal descent
  90. a kinship system in which individuals trace their primary kinship relationships through their mothers
    matrilineal descent
  91. a unilineal descent group larger than an extended family whose members can actually trace how they are related
    lineage
  92. a named unilineal descent group, some of whose members are unable to trace how they are related but still believe themselves to be kinfolk
    clan
  93. a kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships equally through both parents
    bilateral descent
  94. all the bilateral relatives of an individual 
    kindered
  95. a kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships through both female and males
    cognatic descent

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