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(krebs cycle) After 4th reaction...
(krebs cycle) After 5th reaction
we reap FADH2
(krebs cycle) After 7th reaction
we reap NADH
Where is kreb cycle occuring?
Substrate level phosphorylation creates small or alrge amount of ATP?
Oxidative phosphorylation creates large or small amount of ATP?
(how is krebs cycle regulated) What if there is alot of ATP, Acetyl CoA and NADH?
ATP, Acetyl CoA, or NADH will bind to the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase to slow down the production of the overflowing product
What happens is there is alot of NAD+, CoA, and AMP?
-One of the corresponding molecules will bind to the puyruvate dehydrogenase to accelerate the production of them.
- also means there isnt enough of ATP, NADH, and Acetyl CoA around
WHat happens if there is high levels of ATP or NADH in the krebb cycle?
-they will also bind to enzymes to decrease the amount in krebb cycle
What is Pyruvate dehydrogenase made off?
- 3 enzymes and 5 cofactors
- *include thiamin, niacin, and pantothenic acid
What does cytochrome do to color of cells?
give them a little color
What is the ring structure in the middle of a cytochrome?
What is significant of the metal atom inside a heme group?
- it can be readily and reversibly oxidized and reduced
- *can bind and give up electrons easily
What holds the metal in place inside the heme group
nitrogen ring structures
Are all cytochromes the same?
no, amino acids vary depending what type it is
(electron transport chain is organized) first step
- -NADH passes off an excited electron to complex 1
- *it becomes NAD+
- **oxidized reaction
- ***something inside the complex was reduced though bc they come in pairs
(electron transport chain is organized) 2nd step
- as the electron is being passed down, protons it picked up are being flushed out inside the cristae
(electron transport chain is organized) 3rd step
- -in complex 2, FADH2 gets oxidized into FAD
- *someone got reduced inside complex 2
(electron transport chain is organized) last step
-oxygen will be final receptor that will ultimately produce H2O
-oxygen is key to maintain levels of ATP by facilitating oxidative phosphorilation.
(ubiquinone) Characteristics of ubiquinone (2)
- -has a long hydrophobic tail
- *allows it to flop from one side of membrane to the other
- **helps deposit protons inside the cristae this way
- -has 2 oxygens in business side end of molecule
- *the oxygens grab electrons
- ** when it grabs an electron it becomes charge,picking up protons also
- **it continues to go from oxi to reduced as it passes off the enrgetic elctron to other proteins
Why is it called ubiquinone?
- -found in vast amount of cells
- *its everwhere
COmplex proteins have..
- heme groups that are good at grabbing electrons
- *just like ubiquinone
Why are the NADH and FADH used in electron transport?
to make a positive gradient in cristae
How does ATP synthase work? (3)
-hydrogens will go through the ATP SYnthase.
-the molecule will spin
-ultimately it will take ADP + Pi (phospahte group) to make ATP
2 portions of ATP synthase
- -F0 is base
- *its in the membrane
- -F1 is the knob
- *actively involved in making ATP
What is the chemisosmotic hypothesis?
ATP was produced within the vesicles in the absence of electron transport chain
How does NADH playy a role in fermentation
uses the power of NADH to create fermentation by product
What does fermentation pathways allow cells to do?
regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis
DO we use both oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation?
-yeast produces significant amounts of CO2 during oxidative phosphorylation
-differences: 2 acetylaldehyde and 2 CO2