complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion
accum of N waste in bloodstream. occurs when kidney fails to filter these wastes from blood
A stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts
A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays. In the urinary system used to drain urine from the bladder.
Abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine.
A greater than normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. An indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established. This usually occurs by the age of five. Also called bedwetting at night.
A decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It is often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostate gland.
Another term for urination.
Pain caused by a kidney stone, which can be an excruciating and generally requires medical treatment.
Narrowing of a passageway in the urinary system
An excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood. associated w/renal failure
Feeling the need to urinate immediately.
Involuntary release of urine. In some patients and indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage.
An inability to fully empty the bladder, often indicates a blockage in the urethra
Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the urinary system and male reproductive system.
Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia; results in oliguria
acute tubular necrosis
Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus
Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed, it becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) and hematuria.
Distention of the pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney resulting from an obstruction.
The presence of calculi in the kidney. usually begins w/the solidification of salts present in the urine
Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream.
downward displacement of the kidney out of its normal loc
nephtroptosis (commonly called floating kidney)
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney. One of the most common types of kidney disease. It may be the result of a lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureters. There may be large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine, and blood (hematuria) may even be present in the urine in this condition. Can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis.
Cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells.
renal cell carcinoma
Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia; may be acute or chronic; major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis
Malignant kidney tumor found most often in children
Blockage of the bladder outlet into the urethra
bladder neck obstruction
Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. This may cause urinary frequency and urgency.
Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle-aged women.
Loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
Blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste, or urea, that is in the blood.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia
clean catch specimen
Test of kidney function. Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys. For this test, urine is collected for 24 hours and the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream.
Laboratory test that consists of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.
Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on X-ray.
Injection of dye into the bloodstream followed by taking an X-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye.
Injecting a contrast medium into a vein and then taking an X-ray to visualize the renal pelvis.
X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye; also called a flat-plate abdomen.
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while the patient is voiding after a contrast dye has been placed in the bladder.
Visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument
Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye.
Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require surgery.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.
Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.
Destroying or crushing kidney stones in the bladder or urethra with a device
Surgical enlargement of the urinary opening (meatus
Incision into the kidney to remove a stone.
Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes the loss of water and salt from the body. Can assist in lowering blood pressure; therefore, these drugs are used to treat hypertension. Potassium in the body may by depleted with continued use of diuretics. Potassium-rich foods such as bananas, kiwi, and orange juice can help correct this deficiency.