Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
2013-02-12 00:25:43

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  1. Covalent Bonds
    Share an electron
  2. Ionic Bonds
    Bond between two ions (metal and nonmetal)(Cation and anion)
  3. Molecular Formula
    Gives actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound. (ie H2O2)
  4. Emperical Formula
    Relative number of atoms of each element of the compound. (ie. NaCl,H2O)
  5. Structural Formula
    • Uses lines to show bonds between atoms.
    • H-O-O-H
  6. Atomic Elements
    Those that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
  7. Molecular Elements
    Do not usually exist in nature with single atoms as basic units. ie. O2
  8. Molecular Compound
    2 or more covalently bonded NONMETALS
  9. Polyatomic Ion
    Composed of more than two ions
  10. Ionic Compounds
    • 1 nonmetal - 1 metal
    • Must be charge neutral
    • Always a positive and negative ions
  11. Binary Compounds
    2 elements (cation and anion)
  12. Nomenclature
    Naming Compounds
  13. Chlorofluorocarbons
    • Affect Ozone Layer
    • CCl2F2
  14. Alkanes
    Contain only single bonds
  15. Alkenes
    Contain double bonds
  16. Alkynes
    Contain Triple Bonds
  17. Catenation
    Carbon can join to itself
  18. Hydrocarbons
    Contain only Hydrogen and Carbon (Usually used as fuels)
  19. Wohler
    Made Urea from inorganic chemistry
  20. Functional Hydrocarbons
    Conatin more than just Hydrogen and Carbon, such as alcohols.
  21. Solute
    Substance present in lesser amount (ie. Salt)
  22. Solvent
    Substance present in greater amount (ie water)
  23. Electrolytes
    Conduct electricity, no ions in solution.
  24. Strong Electrolyte
    Substance dissovled completely in solution
  25. Strong Acids
    HCl - also strong electrolyte
  26. Weak Acids
    Also weak electrolyte
  27. Precipitation Reaction
    Solid forms from 2 solutions
  28. Molecular Equation
    Shows complete neutral formulas for every compound
  29. Complete Ionic Equation
    Shows charges of all compounds in reaction
  30. Net Ionic Equation
    Shows only charges and ions of compounds that change throughout the reaction.
  31. Spectator Ions
    Do not affect reaction
  32. Svante Arrhenius
    • Acid produces hydrogen ions
    • Base produces hydroxide ions
  33. Base produces...
    Hydroxide ions
  34. Acid produces...
    Hydrogen Ions
  35. Acid Base reactions always form...
    SALT and WATER