Archaeology quiz vocab
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What are the 3 main types of material remains?
- 1) Artifacts: a portable object made, used,or modified by human activity
- 2) Features: a non-portable artifact: a place built or modified by people
- 3) Ecofact: Environmental remains
Where did archaeology originate?
originated in both Europe and U.S
What is Archaeology?
- > Is the study of the human past through current day interpretations of material remains
- > is a humanity and a science asking humanistic questions while using scientific methods
- > seek to narrate and explain the past
Until recently, the past was interpreted through what two sources?
1) Written classical sources
2) The bible (6000 year time frame)
In 1663 Archbishop ______ calculated bible says the world was created on October 23rd, 4004BC at around 9am.
what are the three phases in archaeology's history?
Phase 1: Speculative period (1450-1860)
phase 2: Archaeology comes of age (1860- 1915)
- phase 3: Modern period
Who was the father of American Archaeology?
What is Stratification ?
Layers of rocks. Study of strata whith in the earths deposits
a slowly uniform way (ocean along the beach)
What is the Three age system and who created it?
> Created by Thomas Jefferson
- 1) Stone age (oldest)
- 2) bronze age
- 3) Iron age ( newest)
Who was the first person to study evolution?
> Charles Darwin
What is is Context?
> Where the object is found
What is Typologies?
> Any time you create different categories to organize objects
What is Chronology?
> When something happened
What is Stratigraphy?
>Tells us that the oldest things are on the bottom
What is Seriation?
> Trends that people start to use
What is cultural history?
- > addresses where and when something happened.
- > fails to address why and how it happened
Who created New Archaeology?
- > Lewis Binford
- > also cerica's archaeology grandfather
- > uses the scientific method
Who Crated Post Processual Archaeology ?
- > Ian Hodder
- > focuses on Gender, Individuals, Politics, and Agency (very important)
What are the Archaeological methods?
- > research design
- > data acquisition
- > Analysis
- > Interpretation
- > Publication and curation
Law of Superposition
- > Older deposits are on the bottom
- > Based on the geological study of Stratification and strata
> most important thing in all of Archaeology
Law of Association
> Things found together are associated within eachother
What is Provenience?
> The x,y,z coordinates of objects placement
What is Settlement Archaeology ?
> where one lived and why
What is Cultural Landscape?
> How one interacts with the landscape and why they were there
What is Midden?
> Ancient trash piles
What are examples of relative dating methods?
- > Seriation
- > Law of superposition
- > Law of association
What are examples of Absolute dating methods?
- > Historical Records
- > Dendrochronology (rings in a tree)
- > radio carbon dating
What is Ethnoarchaeology
- > site formation study
- * seeks an understanding of the natural processes that affect the archaeological record.
What is Taphonomy?
- > The study of everything that happens to an object until it is discovered
- > Example (deer bone)
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