Medical Informatics Terminology

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Medical Informatics Terminology
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2014-03-17 11:02:59
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Medical Informatics Terminology
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  1. amniocentesis-
    procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment, fluid contains fetal cells and chemicals
  2. angiogram-
    X-ray test that uses a special dye and camera (fluoroscopy) to take pictures of the blood flow in an artery
  3. angioplasty-
    procedure to restore blood flow through an artery, Doctor threads a thin tube through a blood vessel in the arm or groin up to the involved site in the artery. The tube has a tiny balloon on the end. When the tube is in place, the doctor inflates the balloon to push the plaque outward against the wall of the artery. This widens the artery and restores blood flow.
  4. appendectomy-
    removal of appendix  
  5. appendicitis-
    swelling/ inflammation of the appendix
  6. atrophy-
    decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue
  7. bacteremia-
    presence of bacteria in the blood
  8. biopsy-
    sample of tissue taken from the body surgically for examination
  9. carcinoma-
    malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and gives rise to metastases
  10. cardiologist-
    doctor who specializes in cardiology (disease of the heart)
  11. cardiomegaly-
    enlarged heart
  12. colostomy-
    surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine out through the abdominal wall
  13. cutaneous-
    pertaining to the skin
  14. dermatitis-
    inflammation of the skin
  15. dermatologist-
    physician who specializes in diseases of the skin
  16. dermatome -
    1. an instrument for cutting thin skin slices for grafting. 2. the area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single posterior spinal root. 3. the lateral part of an embryonic somite.
  17. diplopia -
    the perception of two images of a single object
  18. edema -
    condition of abnormally large fluid volume in the circulatory system or in tissues between the body's cells (interstitial spaces)
  19. emesis -
    act or process of vomiting
  20. encephalitis -
    inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a direct viral infection or a hyper-sensitivity reaction to a virus or foreign protein. Brain inflammation caused by a bacterial infection is sometimes called cerebritis. When both the brain and spinal cord are involved, the disorder is called encephalomyelitis. An inflammation of the brain's covering, or meninges, is called meningitis
  21. encephalotomy -
    Dissection or incision of the brain
  22. excision -
    Surgical removal by cutting, as of a tumor or a portion of a structure or organ
  23. hematemesis -
    vomit of blood
  24. hemophilia -
    genetic disorder—usually inherited—of the mechanism of blood clotting. Depending on the degree of the disorder present in an individual, excess bleeding may occur only after specific, predictable events (such as surgery, dental procedures, or injury), or occur spontaneously, with no known initiating event
  25. hemophiliac -
    A person who is affected with hemophilia
  26. hemorrhage -
    the escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding
  27. hernia -
    a bulge or protrusion of an organ through the structure or muscle that usually contains it
  28. hypoglycemia -
    low blood sugar. Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar (or blood glucose) concentrations fall below a level necessary to properly support the body's need for energy and stability throughout its cells
  29. inflammation -
    a protective tissue response to injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissues. The classical signs of acute inflammation are pain (dolor), heat (calor), redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), and loss of function (functio laesa)
  30. lithiasis:
    Formation of stones.
  31. lithotripsy:
    A medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter.
  32. lumpectomy:
    Surgical removal of a tumor from the breast (esp. to remove only the tumor and no other surrounding tissue or lymph nodes.
  33. lymphatic:
    Pertaining to all the lymph vessels that collect tissue fluid and return it to the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.
  34. mammography:
    Radiographic imaging of the breast to screen for and detect breast cancer.
  35. mastectomy:
    Surgical removal of the breast.
  36. mastitis:
    Inflammation or infection of the breast.
  37. mucoid:
    A mucus - like conjugated protein.
  38. mucus:
    A thick, sticky fluid secreted by mucous membranes and glands, and consisting of mucin, leukocytes, inorganic salts, water, and epithelial cells.
  39. nephrotic:
    Relating to or caused by kidney disease/degenerative changes in the kidneys.
  40. neural:
    Pertaining to nerves or connected with the nervous system.
  41. neuralgia:
    Sharp, stabbing pain that follows the path of a nerve and is due to irritation or damage to the nerve.
  42. neurologist:
    A specialist in diseases of the nervous system.
  43. neurosis:
    An unpleasant or maladaptive psychological disorder that may affect personality, mood, or some aspects of behavior but does not distract the affected individual from carrying out most activities of daily living.
  44. oophorosalpingohysterectomy:
    Surgical removal of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries.
  45. ophthalmic-
    pertaining to the eye; ocular.
  46. ophthalmologist-  
    A physician who specializes in ophthalmology (diseases of the eye).
  47. ophthalmoscope-
    An instrument for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina, consisting essentially of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined.
  48. osteoarthritis-
    A form of arthritis, occurring mainly in older persons, that is characterized by chronic degeneration of the cartilage of the joints. Also called degenerative joint disease.
  49. osteomalacia-
    A disease occurring mostly in adult women that results from a deficiency in vitamin D or calcium and is characterized by a softening of the bones with accompanying pain and weakness
  50. otic-
    Of, relating to, or located near the ear; auricular.
  51. otitis-
    Inflammation of the ear.
  52. otoscope-
    An instrument for examining the interior of the ear, especially the eardrum, consisting essentially of a magnifying lens and a light
  53. pathogenic-
    capable of causing disease; originating or producing disease.
  54. peritoneal-
    (Peritoneum)- The serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and folds inward to enclose the viscera.
  55. phlebitis-
    Inflammation of a vein.
  56. proteinuria-
    The presence of excessive amounts of protein in the urine
  57. ptosis-
    Abnormal lowering or drooping of an organ or a part, especially a drooping of the upper eyelid caused by muscle weakness or paralysis.
  58. tonsillectomy-
    Surgical removal of tonsils or a tonsil.
  59. tonsillitis-
    inflammation of the tonsils.
  60. tracheostomy-
    the surgical opening of the trachea to provide and secure an open airway.
  61. tracheotomy-
    incision into the trachea through the skin and soft tissue of the neck
  62. arthritis / arthralgia-
    joint inflammation, often accompanied by pain, swelling, stiffness, or deformity
  63. arthrocentesis-
    entry into a joint space with a needle to remove fluid
  64. arthrodynia-
    pain in a joint
  65. arthroscopy-
    direct joint visualization by means of an arthroscope, usually to remove, repair, or replace tissue, such as cartilage fragments or torn ligaments, or to anneal injured tissues
  66. articulation-
    a joint; the site of close approximation of two or more bones.  It may be immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable.  Cartilage or fibrous connective tissue lines the opposing surfaces of all joints. The movement of articulating surfaces through their available joint play or range of motion, used to determine joint mobility or to treat joint pain
  67. bursa-
    a padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue usually in the vicinity of joints
  68. bursitis-
    inflammation of a bursa, especially between bony prominences and muscle or tendon, as in the shoulder and knee
  69. carpal tunnel-
    the canal in the wrist bounded by osteofibrous material through which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass
  70. cerebrospinal-
    pert. to the brain and spinal cord, as the cerebrospinal axis
  71. cervical-
    1. pert. to or in the region of the neck
  72. chondrocostal-
    pert. to the ribs and costal cartilages
  73. facial-
    pert. to the face
  74. fascia-
    a fibrous membrane covering, supporting, and separating muscles (deep fascia); the subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the muscles (superficial fascia)
  75. Femoral:
    pertaining to the femur
  76. fibula:
    lateral, smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
  77. hematopoiesis:
    the formation of blood cells in the body
  78. herniated:
    protruded through an abnormal body opening
  79. hyperuricemia:
    an excess of uric acid in the blood
  80. iliac:
    pertaining  to the ilium
  81. iliopubic:
    relating to the area between or the union of the ilium and the pubis
  82. intervertebral:
    between the vertebrae
  83. ischial:
    pertaining to or situated near the ischium
  84. ischium:
    the dorsal and posterior of the three bones forming the pelvis
  85. kyphosis:
    an exaggerated curve of the spine in the lumbar region; hunchback
  86. laminectomy:
    surgical removal of the posterior arch of the vertebrae known as the lamina
  87. ligament:
    a strong band of connective tissue that joins one bone to another
  88. lumbar:
    pertaining to the region between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum
  89. metacarpal-
    Bone(s) found in the palm area of the hand that extends from the carpals to the phalanges (any bone of the metacarpus)
  90. metacarpophalangeal-
    concerning the metacarpus and the phalanges
  91. metatarsal-
    Bones(s) found in the foot that are found in the arch of the foot that articulate between the tarsals and the phalanges (Any of the bones (5 of them) of the metatarsus)
  92. musculoskeletal-
    pertaining to the muscles and the skeleton
  93. myalgia-
    Tenderness or pain in the muscles
  94. myopathy-
    Any congenital or acquired muscle disease, marked clinically by focal or diffuse muscular weakness
  95. orthopedics-
    The branch of medical science that deals with prevention or correction of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscles, fascia, and other supporting structures such as ligaments and cartilage
  96. osteitis-
    inflammation of a bone
  97. osteochondritis-
    Inflammation of bone and cartilage
  98. osteomyelitis-
    Inflammation of bone and marrow, usually caused by infection (and less often by radiation or other causes). It most commonly occurs in the long bones or spine.
  99. osteoporosis-
    loss of bone mass that occurs throughout the skeleton, predisposing patients to fractures.
  100. paraplegia-
    Paralysis of the lower portion of the body and of both legs.
  101. patellofemoral-
    Concerning the patella and femur.
  102. phalanges-
    Any one of the bones of the fingers or toes, plural of phalanx
  103. polyarthritis-
    Inflammation of more than one joint seen in multiple types of arthritis. It usually refers to more than four joints.
  104. rheumatoid-
    tender, painful, stiff joints, with swelling and thickening usually with symmetric involvements on both sides of the body, range of motion becomes limited, rheumatoid nodules are present in actue and chronic stage
  105. scoliosis-
    a side-to-side curvature of the spine
  106. sesamoid-
    a small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule
  107. spondylarthritis-
    inflammation of the intervertebral articulations
  108. sprain-
    a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact
  109. sternocostal-
    relating to both the sternum and the ribs
  110. strain-
    to injure or impair by overuse or overexertion
  111. subarachnoid-
    between the arachnoid and the pia mater
  112. substernal-
    behind (deep to) the sternum
  113. synovial-
    pertaining to, consisting of, or secreting synovia, the lubricating fluid of the joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths
  114. tarsal-
    pertaining to the tarsus, or ankle bone; relating to the supporting plate of the eyelid
  115. tendon-
    a fibrous cord of connective tissue continuous with the fibers of a muscle and attaching the muscle to bone or cartilage
  116. tendonitis-
    inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments, one of the most common causes of acute pain in the shoulder. It is frequently associated with a calcium deposit (calcific tendinitis), which may also involve the bursa around the tendon or near the joint
  117. thorax-
    part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm, partially encased by the ribs and containing the heart and lungs; the chest
  118. tibia-
    the inner and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, extending from the knee to the ankle, and articulating with the femur, fibula, and talus (also called shinbone)
  119. ulnar-
    Relating to the ulna, or to the nerve or artery named from it
  120. vertebra-
    Any of the 33 bony segments of the spinal column: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal vertebrae
  121. abductor-
    A muscle that on contraction draws a part away from the median plane of the body or the axial line of an extremity
  122. adductor-
    A muscle that draws toward the midline
  123. afebrile-
    Without fever
  124. anaerobic-
    Taking place in the absence of oxygen; Concerning an organism that lives and reproduces in the absence of oxygen
  125. anesthesia-
    Partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness, as a result of disease, injury, or administration of an anesthetic agent, usually by injection or inhalation
  126. anesthetic-
    Pertaining to or producing anesthesia; An agent that produces anesthesia; subdivided into inhaled, intravenous, general, or local, according to its action and administration
  127. aphasia-
    Absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction; It is considered complete or total when both sensory and motor areas are involved.
  128. arteriosclerosis-
    A disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls; Three forms of arteriosclerosis are generally recognized: atherosclerosis, sclerosis of arterioles, and calcific sclerosis of the medial layer of arteries (Mönckeberg's calcification); Atherosclerosis is the single most important cause of disease and death in Western societies.
  129. bradycardia-
    A slow heartbeat marked by a pulse rate below 60 beats per minute in an adult
  130. carcinogenic-
    Producing cancer
  131. cephalic-
    Cranial; Superior in position
  132. cryptorchidism-
    Failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum
  133. cyanosis-
    A blue, gray, slate, or dark purple discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes caused by deoxygenated or reduced hemoglobin in the blood
  134. dysphagia -
    difficulty or inability to swallow; can be associated with pain (odynophagia)
  135. ectopic -
    has many applications, but in the medical field: 1) an organ not in its proper position, or of a pregnancy occurring elsewhere than in the cavity of the uterus.  2) Of or relating to a heartbeat that has its origin elsewhere than in the sinoatrial node.
  136. electroencephalogram -
    a graphic record of the electrical activity of the brain as recorded by an electroencephalograph.
  137. erythrocyte -
    a red blood cell.
  138. erythrocytosis (aka polycythemia) -
    a disease state where there is either an increased red blood cell proportion, measured by taking the hematocrit level, or decreased levels of everything else (plasma).  Causes are various; genetic, idiopathic, etc.
  139. euthyroid -
    the state of having normal thyroid gland function.
  140. hemolysis -
    the breakdown of red blood cells, The destruction or dissolution of red blood cells, with release of hemoglobin. Also called erythrocytolysis, erythrolysis.
  141. histology -
    in medicine, the study of tissues.
  142. hyperglycemia -
    high blood sugar; when there is too much glucose circulating in the blood plasma.  “Normal” is 70-100 mg/dL for healthy adults, can vary a bit if you have just eaten (postprandial) or are fasting.
  143. hyperparathyroidism -
    a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH).  Since PTH controls calcium levels, too much can lead to hypercalcemia.
  144. hypersecretion -
    excessive secretion; simply, in reference to any gland of any type in the body which secretes too much of its product.
  145. hyperthermia -
    when the body temperature is too high; generally considered hyperthermic if temperature is above 101ºF, but can reach levels higher than 105.8ºF which would be considered hyperpyrexia, which can cause brain damage.
  146. hypocalcemia -
    An abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood.
  147. hypoparathyroidism -
    inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  148. hyposecretion -
    too little secretion; simply, when any gland of any type in the body is not producing enough of its product.
  149. hypothyroidism-
    a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, sometimes called underactive thyroid, most common in women over 50, most commonly caused by thyroiditis, or swelling and inflammation of the thyroid gland
  150. incontinence-
    urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control, which ranges from occasional leakage to complete and constant loss of control
  151. intradermal-
    within the skin, within the dermal layer of the skin, between the layers of the skin
  152. intramuscular-
    within the muscle, occurring within the muscular system, done to the inter-muscle tissue
  153. intravenous-
    within or administered into a vein, as in an injection, catheter or infusion, often referring to fluid treatments, fluid withdrawals, drug therapies, and blood transfusions
  154. leukemia-
    cancer that starts in blood forming tissues such as bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream
  155. leukocyte-
    white blood cell capable of amoeboid movement, whose chief function is to protect the body from invading microorganisms which would cause disease
  156. lipoma-
    a benign, soft, rubbery encapsulated tumor of adipose tissue, usually composed of mature fat cells
  157. malabsorption-
    impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients
  158. malignant-
    tending to become worse and end in death, having the properties of resisting treatment, invasiveness, metastasis, virulent, and threatening
  159. melanoma-
    a tumor arising from the melanocytic system of the skin and other organs, it is the most dangerous form of skin cancer; a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by pigment-producing cells, usually dark in color but may be free of pigment, can occur at the site of a mole or another site
  160. mononuclear-
    a cell having a single nucleus, especially a monocyte of the blood or tissues
  161. necrosis-
    morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation, can affect groups of cells or part of an organ structure; death of cells or tissues through injury or disease
  162. neonatology-
    the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the newborn
  163. neoplasm-
    any abnormal formation of tissue, typically called a tumor; abnormal new growth of tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal, continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease, shows partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, usually forms a distinct mass of tissue, may be either benign or malignant
  164. nullipara-
    a woman who has never borne a child
  165. orthopnea-  
    difficulty in breathing that occurs when lying down and is relieved upon changing to an upright position (as in congestive heart failure)
  166. photophobia-
    intolerance to light; especially: painful sensitiveness to strong light
  167. polydipsia-
    excessive or abnormal thirst
  168. postpartum-
    adj. occurring in or being the period following parturition (giving birth)
  169. prepartum-
    occurring in or being the period before parturition (giving birth)
  170. prerenal-
    occurring in the circulatory system before the kidney is reached
  171. primigravida-
    an individual pregnant for the first time
  172. psychogenic-
    originating in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict
  173. pyogenic-
    producing pus
  174. pyromaniac-
    an individual affected with pyromania (an irresistible impulse to start fires)
  175. quadriplegic-
    an individual affected with paralysis of all four limbs
  176. sclerosis-
    a pathological condition in which a tissue has become hard and which is produced by overgrowth of fibrous tissue and other changes (as in multiple sclerosis) -- called also hardening [arteriosclerosis: abnormal thickening and hardening or the arterial walls; multiple sclerosis: demyelinating disease marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or spinal cord; myelosclerosis: sclerosis of the bone marrow ]
  177. subcutaneous:
    being, living, or made under the skin
  178. syndrome:
    a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality
  179. tachycardia-
    relatively rapid heart action whether physiological (as after exercise) or pathological
  180. tricuspid-
    valve between the right atrium & right ventricle. Prevents backflow from RV to the RA. This along with mitral valve are called Atrioventricular Valve.
  181. unilateral-
    occurring on, performed on, or affecting one side of the body or one of its parts
  182. xanthosis-
    A yellowish discoloration of degenerating tissues, especially seen in malignant neoplasms.
  183. aneurysm-
    an abnormal blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel and especially an artery resulting from disease of the vessel wall
  184. angina pectoris-
    a disease marked by brief paroxysmal attacks of chest pain precipitated by deficient oxygenation of the heart muscles
  185. angiography-
    the radiographic visualization of the blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque substance
  186. angioma-
    a tumor (as a hemangioma or lymphangioma) composed chiefly of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels
  187. aortic-
    of, relating to, or affecting an aorta
  188. aortogram-
    an X-ray picture of the aorta made by arteriography
  189. arrhythmia-
    an alteration in rhythm of the heartbeat either in time or force
  190. arterial-
    1 : of or relating to an artery  2 : relating to or being the bright red blood present in most arteries that has been oxygenated in lungs or gills
  191. arteriole-
    any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries
  192. arteriosclerosis-
    an arteriosclerosis characterized by atheromatous deposits in and fibrosis of the inner layer of the arteries
  193. arteritis-
    arterial inflammation( as in giant cell arteritis)
  194. Artery-
    tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart through the body
  195. Atria-
    (plural) Chamber of the heart
  196. Atrioventricular-
    relating to the atrial and ventricular chambers of the heart. ie) AV node
  197. Atrium-
    a chamber affording entrance to another structure or organ, especially the upper, smaller cavity (a. cordis) on either side of the heart, which receives blood from the pulmonary veins (left a.) or venae cavae (right a.) and delivers it to the ventricle on the same side.
  198. Bicuspid-
    having two cusps or points ie) Bicuspid valve
  199. Bypass-
    an auxiliary flow; a shunt; a surgically created pathway circumventing the normal anatomical pathway, such as in an artery or the intestine
  200. Capillaries-
    minute vessels connecting the arterioles and venules, the walls of which act as a semi-permeable membrane for interchange of various substances between the blood and tissue fluid.
  201. Cardiomyopathy-
    a chronic disease of the heart muscle (myocardium), in which the muscle is abnormally enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened. The weakened heart muscle loses the ability to pump blood effectively, resulting in irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and possibly even heart failure.
  202. Cardiopulmonary-
    of or relating to the heart and lungs
  203. Cardiovascular-
    pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
  204. Cardioversion-
    refers to the process of restoring the heart's normal rhythm by applying a controlled electric shock to the exterior of the chest.
  205. Cerebrovascular-
    pertaining to the vascular system and blood supply of the brain.
  206. Congenital-
    existing at or dating from birth; acquired during development in the uterus and not through heredity
  207. Coronary-
    encircling like a crown; applied to vessels, ligaments, etc., especially to the arteries of the heart, and to pathologic involvement of them
  208. Cuspid-
    having one cusp or point; a canine tooth
  209. Defibrillation-
    Termination of ventricular fibrillation (vfib) with electrical countershock(s).
  210. Defibrillator-
    A device that delivers an electrical shock that completely depolarizes the myocardium, producing a   brief period of asystole.
  211. Dysrhythmia-
    Abnormal, disordered, or disturbed rhythm
  212. Echocardiogram-
    The graphic record produced by echocardiography
  213. Echocardiography-
    A noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures. The heart’s valves, walls, and chambers can be evaluated, and intracardiac masses or clots can often be seen.
  214. Electrocardiogram-
    A record of the electrical activity of the heart, consisting of waves called P, Q, R, S, T, and sometimes U. The electrocardiogram gives important information concerning the spread of electricity to the different parts of the heart and is used to diagnose rhythm and conduction disturbances, myocardial infarction or ischemia, chamber enlargement, and metabolic disorders.
  215. Electrocardiograph-
    A device for recording changes in the electrical energy produced by the action of heart muscles.
  216. Embolus-
    A mass of undissolved matter present in a blood or lymphatic vessel and brought there by the blood or lymph. Emboli may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.
  217. Endocarditis-
    Infection or inflammation of the heart valves or of the lining of the heart.
  218. Fibrillation-
    1. Formation of fibrils. 2. Quivering of spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers. 3. An abnormal bioelectric potential occurring in neuropathies and myopathies.
  219. Hemangioma-
    A benign tumor composed of dilated blood vessels and often encapsulated within a fibrous shell. It may be found on the skin, or in an internal organ.
  220. Hemorrhoids-
    Acute pain may be related to inflammation and edema or prolapsed varices, possible evidenced by verbal reports, and guarding/ distraction behaviors.
  221. Hyperlipidemia-
    An increase of lipids in the blood
  222. Hypertension-
    In adults, a condition in which the blood pressure (BP) is higher than 140 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic on three separate readings recorded several weeks apart.
  223. Hypertrophy-
    An increase in the size of an organ or structure, or of the body owing to growth rather than tumor formation.  
  224. hypotension -
    Low blood pressure; systolic blood pressure is lower than 90 mm Hg, and diastolic is less than 60 mm Hg
  225. infarction -
    Obstruction of blood supply to an organ or tissue, resulting in necrosis of that tissue
  226. ischemia -
    Inadequate oxygen supply to an organ or other part of body
  227. albuminuria -
    Excessive levels of the protein albumin in the urine; indicative of kidney disorder
  228. anorexia -
    Loss of appetite; Anorexia nervosa is an emotional disorder with an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusal to eat
  229. antiemetic -
    Drug that alleviates nausea and vomiting
  230. bicuspids -
    A form of mitral valves in the heart with two cusps located in between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  231. cholecystectomy -
    Surgical removal of the gallbladder
  232. cholecystitis -
    Inflammation of the gallbladder
  233. choledochal -
    Congenital condition associated with benign cystic dilation of the bile ducts
  234. choledocholithiasis -  
    Presence of gallstones in the common bile duct resulting in jaundice and liver cell damage
  235. cholelithiasis -
    Formation of gallstones
  236. cholestasis -
    Condition in which the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  237. colonoscopy -
    Endoscopic procedure for visualization of the colon from the cecum to the rectum
  238. diverticulitis -
    Condition in which sacs or pouches (diverticula) in the walls of the intestine become inflamed or infected
  239. Dyspepsia -
    indigestion
  240. emetics –
    agents that cause vomiting
  241. hepatotoxic –
    relating to or causing injury to the liver
  242. adrenal –
    relating to or derived from the adrenal glands or their secretion
  243. anemia –
    a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume
  244. anterior –
    towards the front
  245. anterolateral –
    towards the front and to the side
  246. anteromedian –
    located in front and towards the middle
  247. anteroposterior –
    view from front to back
  248. anterosuperior –
    located in the front and above
  249. anticoagulant -
    A medication used to prevent the formation of blood clots and to maintain open blood vessels
  250. anuria –
    absence of urine formation
  251. ascites -
    accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity is most commonly caused by cirrhosis of the liver
  252. blepharitis:
    inflammation of the eyelids and especially of their margins
  253. blepharospasm:
    spasmodic winking from involuntary contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the eyelids
  254. caudad:
    toward the tail or posterior end
  255. centrifuge:
    a machine using centrifugal force for separating substances of different densities, for removing moisture, or for simulating gravitational effects
  256. coagulation:
    a change to a viscous, jellylike, or solid state; especially : a change from a liquid to a thickened curdlike state not by evaporation but by chemical reaction
  257. cranial:
    of or relating to the skull or cranium
  258. dacryocystitis:
    inflammation of the lacrimal sac
  259. dacryolithiasis:
    the formation of dacryoliths; also : a condition in which dacryoliths are present
  260. dactylography:
    the scientific study of fingerprints as a means of identification
  261. distal:
    situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point. Located away from the center of the body
  262. dorsal:
    being or located near, on, or toward the back or posterior part of the human body
  263. embilicus:
    (umbilicus) the navel; the scar marking the site of attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus
  264. erythropoietin:
    a hormonal substance that is formed especially in the kidney and stimulates red blood cell formation
  265. exocrine -
    Relating to a glandular secretion released externally through a duct to a surface.
  266. hematuria -
    Presence of blood in the urine.
  267. hemodialysis -
    Procedure for removing metabolic waste products or toxic substances from blood stream by dialysis.
  268. homeostasis -
    Ability or tendency of an organism/cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological process.
  269. hydrocephalus -
    An abnormal accumulation of fluid in cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain, destroying much of the neural tissue.
  270. immunocompromised -
    Incapable of developing a normal immune response, usually as a result of disease, malnutrition or immunosuppressive therapy.
  271. immunodeficiency -
    A disorder / deficiency of the normal immune response.
  272. inferior -
    Low or lower in order situated below or directed downward.
  273. interstitial -
    Relating to/or situated in the small, narrow spaces between tissues or parts of an organ.
  274. intracellular -
    Occurring or situated within a cell or cell’s.
  275. lacrimal -
    Of/or relating to tears or the glands that produce tears.
  276. lacrimation -
    Secretion of tears especially in excess.
  277. laparoscope -
    Slender tubular endoscope that is inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall to examine or perform minor surgery within the abdominal or pelvic cavities.  
  278. lateral -
    of or relating to the side: lying away from the median axis of the body
  279. leukocytosis -
    an increase in the number of white blood cells in the circulating blood. Occurs both normally and abnormally (as is the case with some infections).
  280. leukopenia -
    a condition in which the number of white blood cells in the circulating blood is abnormally low.
  281. lymph -
    a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, few red blood cells and no platelets. Passes from the intercellular spaces of body tissue, through the lymphatic system and into the bloodstream.
  282. medial -
    lying or extending toward the median axis of the body
  283. midsagittal plane -
    median, vertical, longitudinal plane that divides a body symmetrically into two halves.
  284. mucolytic -
    an agent that breaks down or lowers the viscosity of mucus.
  285. pallor -
    paleness, lack of color
  286. peritoneum -
    smooth serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity
  287. peritonitis -
    an inflammation of the membrane (the peritoneum) which lines the abdominal cavity
  288. phagocyte -
    a cell that engulfs and consumes a foreign body
  289. plasma -
    clear, yellowish fluid component of blood, lymph or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended
  290. medial -
    Towards the midline or center; ie the chest is medial to the arm
  291. midsagittal plane -
    aka median plane; A vertical plane through the midline of the body  and divides the body into right and left halves
  292. mucolytic -
    a drug that is used to break down thick mucus.  Typically used in treatment of respiratory ailments when someone is having difficulty breathing because of a buildup of mucus in the trachea and lungs
  293. onychomycosis -
    infection of the nails by fungus.  Toenails are affected more than fingernails.
  294. pallor -
    paleness of the skin; deficiency of color
  295. peritoneum -
    the serous membrane which lines the inside of the abdomen and pelvic cavities and all of the internal organs.  
  296. peritonitis -
    an inflammation of the peritoneum
  297. phagocyte -
    a cell (as a white blood cell: microphage, macrophage or monocyte) that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues
  298. plasma -
    the clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood, lymph or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended.  Plasma makes up 55% of human blood volume of which 90% is water.  
  299. platelets-
    colorless, disk like body of mammalian blood that is released from the bone marrow into blood, and that assists in blood clotting by adhering to damaged epithelium.
  300. posterior-
    situated at or toward the hind(back) part of the body
  301. proximal-
    located toward the center of the body
  302. sialography-
    radiography of the salivary tract after injection of a radiopaque substance
  303. thoracentesis-
    aspiration of fluid from the chest
  304. thoracic-
    of , relating to, located within, or involving the thorax
  305. thoracotomy-
    surgical incision of the chest wall
  306. thrombopenia-
    persistent decrease in the number of blood platelets that is often associated with hemorrhagic conditions
  307. thrombosis-
    the formation or a presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel
  308. umbilical-
    1.) of, or relating to, or used at the navel 2.) Of or relating to the central abdominal region that is situated between the right and left lumbar regions and between the epigastric region above and the hypogastric region below
  309. ventral-
    being or located near, on, or toward the front or anterior part of the human body
  310. anoxia-
    hypoxia especially of such severity as to result in permanent damage
  311. anastomosis-
    1.) Communication between or coalescence of blood vessels. 2.) The surgical union of parts and  especially hollow tubular parts. 3.) A product of anastomosis, especially: a network (as of channels or branches) produced by anastomosis   
  312. antitussive-
    tending or having the power to act as a cough suppressant
  313. apnea-
    transient cessation of respiration whether normal (as in hibernating animals) or abnormal (as that caused by certain drugs), asphyxia (medical example *sleep apnea*)
  314. atelectasis-
    collapse of the expanded lung ; also : defective expansion of the pulmonary alveoli at birth
  315. bronchiectasis-  
    a chronic inflammatory or degenerative condition of one or more bronchi or bronchioles marked by dilatation and loss of elasticity of the walls
  316. bronchitis-
    acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes ; also : a disease marked by this
  317. bronchodilator-
    relating to or causing expansion of the bronchial air passages
  318. diaphragm-
    a body partition of muscle and connective tissue ; specifically : the partition separating the chest and abdominal cavities in mammals ( also, pelvic diaphragm and urogential diaphragm); a molded cap usually of thin rubber fitted over the uterine cervix to act as a mechanical contraceptive barrier
  319. dyspnea-
    difficult or labored respiration
  320. endotracheal-
    placed within the trachea; applied or effected through the trachea
  321. epiglottis-
    a thin lamella of yellow elastic cartilage that ordinarily projects upward behind the tongue and just in front of the glottis and that with the arytenoid cartilages serves to cover the glottis during the act of swallowing
  322. hemopneumothorax-
    the accumulation of blood and air in the pleural cavity
  323. hyperpnea-
    abnormally rapid or deep breathing
  324. hypoxia-
    deficiency of oxygen  (hypo-under, ox/o-oxygen, -ia=condition)
  325. laryngitis-
    inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in dysphonia(hoarseness), cough and difficulty swallowing (laryng/o-larynx, itis=inflammation)
  326. laryngoscopy-
    examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube (-scopy=process of viewing)
  327. lobectomy-
    removal of a lobe of the lung
  328. orotracheal-
    pertaining to the mouth and trachea (oro=mouth, trach/=trachea)
  329. pharyngitis-
    inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in a sore throat (pharyng/o=pharynx, -itis-inflammation)
  330. pneumohemothorax=
    accumulation of blood and gas in the pleural cavity (pneum/o=lung, hem/o-blood, thorax-chest)
  331. pneumonitis-
    inflammaiton of the lung tissue (pneum/o=lung, -itis=inflammation)
  332. pneumothorax-
    collapsed lung
  333. rhinitis-
    inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose (rhin/o-nose, -itis=inflammation)
  334. rhinoplasty-
    surgical repair of the nose (rhin/o-nose, -plasty=surgical repair)
  335. rhinorrhea-
    thin watery discharge from the nose (rhin/o-nose, -rrhea=drainage)
  336. tachypnea
    Tachy- (G. swift, fast) -pnea (G. breath, breathe). Rapid, shallow respirations.
  337. cystitis
    Cyst- (G. the bladder, a bag) -itis (G. Inflammation). Bladder inflammation, may be infectious or non-infectious in etiology.
  338. cystoscopy
    Cysto- (G. the bladder, a bag)  -scopy (G. Observation). Use of a lighted instrument to look inside the bladder, usually via urethra.
  339. cystourethrogram
    Cysto- (G. the bladder, a bag)  urethr(o)- (G. Urethra) gram(m) (G. writing). X-ray imagery to assess the patency of the urinary tract. A contrast is injected into the bladder via urinary catheter, films may be taken before, during, and after voiding.
  340. diuresis
    di- (G. across, through; separate, apart) -uri- (G. Urine, the tail) -sis (G. the act of). An increased excretion of urine.
  341. diuretic
    di- (G. across, through; separate, apart) -ur(e)- (G. Urine, the tail) -tic (G. relation; L. belonging to). Tending to increase the excretion of urine.
  342. glomerulonephritis
    Glomeru- (L. ball of yarn, a ball) nephr- (G. the kidney) -itis (G. Inflammation). Nephritis marked by inflammation of the capillaries of the renal glomeruli; blood and proteins are lost through the urine.
  343. adenoma
    Aden- (G. A gland) -oma (G. a tumor, morbid growth). A benign tumor of a glandular structure or of glandular origin.
  344. agoraphobia
    Agora- (G. A marketplace) -phobia (G. fear, dread). Abnormal fear of being helpless in a situation from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing that is characterized initially often by panic or anticipatory anxiety and finally by avoidance of open or public places.
  345. akinesia
    A- (G. not, without) -kines(ia) (G. move, moving, movement). Loss or impairment of voluntary activity (as of a muscle).
  346. cephalalgia
    Cephal- (G. the head) -algia (G. Pain). Headache.
  347. craniotomy
    Crani(o)- (G. the skull) -tom(y) (G. to cut). 1 : surgical opening of the skull 2 : the operation of cutting or crushing the fetal head to effect delivery
  348. exophoria
    Exo- (outward), -phoria (to bear). Tendency of the eyes to deviate outward
  349. abscess
    A collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection.
  350. asepsis
    A- (no), seps/o (infection), -sis (state of; condition). Freedom from infection.
  351. aspiration
    1: Breathing in a foreign substance. 2: Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with suction.
  352. bacteriostatic
    Bacteri/o (bacteria), -static (pertaining to stopping). Prevention of bacteria from growing or multiplying.
  353. bulla
    Large vesicle or collection of clear fluid; blister
  354. cellulitis
    Diffuse, acute infection of the skin parked by local heat, redness, pain and swelling.
  355. contusion
    An injury without breakage of the skin characterized by swelling, discoloration and pain; bruise
  356. debridement
    Process of removing non-living tissue from wounds.
  357. furuncle
    A painful nodule characterized by circumscribed inflammation of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue due to staphylococci entering the skin through a hair follicle; boil
  358. hematoma
    hemat/o (blood), -oma (mass, fluid collection). Collection or mass of blood outside the blood vessels.
  359. amenorrhea -
    absence of menstruation; lack of menarche; failure to menstruate
  360. antepartum -
    period of pregnancy between conception and onset of labor, used with reference to the mother.
  361. colposcopy -
    the examination of vaginal and cervical tissues by means of a colposcope. Colposcopy is used to select sites of abnormal epithelium for biopsy in patients with abnormal pap smears.
  362. conization -
    cone biopsy for abnormal cervical cell changes, the removal of a cone of tissue, as in partial excision of the cervix uteri.
  363. contraceptive -
    any process, device or method, that prevents conception.
  364. dysmenorrhea -
    pain in association with menstruation.
  365. hysterectomy -
    surgical removal of the uterus. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed.
  366. implantation -
    embedding of the developing blastocyst in the uterine mucosa 6-7 days after fertilization.
  367. Ab -
    antibody
  368. ABG -
    arterial blood gas
  369. AC -
    acromioclavicular; air conduction; alternating current; anodal closure; aortic closure.?
  370. AD -
    Alzheimer’s disease, acute distress or right ear (auris dexter)
  371. ad lib. -
    in an unrestrained manner, spontaneously
  372. AFB -
    acid fast bacteria
  373. AFP -
    alpha-fetoprotein
  374. AMA -
    against medical advice, American Medical Association
  375. AMI -
    acute myocardial infarction
  376. AP view -
    anteroposterior view (x-ray)
  377. ARDS -
    acute respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome
  378. AS -
    aortic stenosis, atherosclerosis, or left ear (auris sinistral)
  379. ASD -
    atrial septal defect
  380. ASHD -
    arteriosclerotic heart disease
  381. AV -
    arteriovenous, atrioventricular
  382. B.I.D., b.i.d.-
    twice a day, in regard to treatment/prescriptions
  383. BM-
    bowel movement (most common), however, at times used for basal metabolism, bone marrow, or buccomesial
  384. BMR-
    basal metabolic rate
  385. BP-
    blood pressure
  386. BUN-
    blood urea nitrogen, diagnostic testing reveals BUN, the measure of urea nitrogen in one’s blood
  387. C.-
    cytosine, cervical vertebrae, or as in the case of species genus naming, commonly seen with Clostridium based microbes (i.e. everyone’s favorite Clostridium Difficile, or C. Diff)
  388. č
    with
  389. CA-
    Cancer, carcinoma (most commonly), also cardiac arrest, coronary artery
  390. CBC-
    complete blood count
  391. CCU-
    clean catch urine, also cardiac care unit
  392. CDC-
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  393. CEA-
    carcinoembryonic antigen, also carotid endarterectomy
  394. CHF-
    congestive heart failure
  395. cm.
    centimeter, Caucasian male
  396. CNS-
    Central Nervous System
  397. COPD-
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  398. CPD-
    Cephalopelvic disproportion or Childhood Polycystic Disease or Congenital Polycystic Disease
  399. CPR-
    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  400. C-section -
    Caesarean section - surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies
  401. CSF-
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  402. CT scan-
    Computerized Tomogrophy Scan
  403. CV-
    Cardiac volume or cell volume
  404. CVA-
    Cerebral Vascular Accident; stroke
  405. CXR-
    Chest X-ray
  406. D&C-
    Dilation and Curettage
  407. DES -
    diethylstilbestrol - synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen - From about 1940 to 1970, DES was given to pregnant women in the mistaken belief it would reduce the risk of pregnancy complications and losses. In 1971, DES was shown to cause a rare vaginal tumor in girls and women who had been exposed to this drug in utero
  408. Diff -
    Differential
  409. DM -
    Doctor of Medicine ?Diabetes Mellitus?
  410. DNA -
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  411. DO -  
    Doctor of Osteopathy
  412. DOB -
    Date of Birth
  413. DOE -
    Department of Education
  414. DPT -
    Doctorate of Physical Therapy
  415. DVT -
    Deep Vein Thrombosis
  416. Dx -
    Diagnosis
  417. EBV -
    Epstein Barr Virus
  418. ECG -
    Echocardiogram
  419. EKG -
    Electrocardiogram
  420. EDC-
    estimated date of confinement  
  421. EEG-
    Electroencephalography
  422. EENT-
    Ears, Eyes, Nose, Throat
  423. EMG-
    electromyogram
  424. ENT-
    Ears, Nose and Throat -OR- Embryonic Nervous Tissue
  425. EOMI-
    Extra-Ocular Muscles Intact -OR- Extraocular Movements FDA Intact
  426. ESR-
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  427. F.-
    Fahrenheit
  428. FACP-
    Fellow of the American College of Physicians
  429. FACS-
    Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting -OR- Fellow of the American College of Surgeons
  430. FDA-
    Federal Drug Administration
  431. FUO-
    Fever of Undetermined Origin
  432. FVC-
    Forced Vital Capacity
  433. GC-
    Gonococcus  -OR- Gas Chromotography -OR- Geriatric Care
  434. GI-
    Gastrointestinal
  435. gm. -
    Gram
  436. gtt. -
    Glucose Tolerance Test, drops
  437. HCG -
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
  438. HDL -
    High Density Lipoprotein;  transports cholesterol to the liver for excretion in bile
  439. Hg -
    Mercury
  440. h.s. -
    Half Strength
  441. Hct -
    Hematocrit
  442. ICU -
    Intensive Care Unit
  443. I&D -
    Incision and Drainage
  444. IM -
    Intramuscular or Internal Medicine
  445. I.V. -
    Intravenous
  446. IVP -
    Intravenous Pyelogram; the use of a dye injected into the veins to locate kidney stones
  447. kg. -
    Kilogram
  448. KUB -
    Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder;  also an old way of ordering a frontal supine radiograph of the abdomen
  449. LAT, lat. -
    lateral
  450. lb. -
    pound
  451. LDL -
    low-density lipoprotein
  452. LLQ -
    left lower quadrant
  453. LMP -
    last menstrual period—first day of the menstrual period prior to conceiving, used to calculate expected date of delivery (EDD)
  454. LP -
    lumbar puncture
  455. LPN -
    licensed practical nurse
  456. LUQ -
    left upper quadrant
  457. mcg. -
    micrograms
  458. MCH -
    maternal and child health services, mean corpuscular hemoglobin.
  459. MCHC -
    mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,
  460. MCV -
    mean corpuscular volume
  461. MPV -
    mean platelet volume
  462. M.D. -
    Doctor of medicine.
  463. MI -
    myocardial infarction - necrosis of the myocardium due to the interruption of blood supply in a given area.
  464. NPO -
    nil per os - nothing by mouth.
  465. NSAID -
    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (Ex: aspirin or ibuprofen.)
  466. OA -
    Osteoarthritis - disorder in joints caused by gradual cartilage loss resulting in bony spurs and cysts at the margins or joints.
  467. OB -
    Doctor of obstetrics
  468. OC -
    oral contraceptive
  469. OD -
    Doctor of Optometry. - oculus detxer, right eye
  470. OR -
    Operating Room.
  471. Ortho -
    Orthopedic
  472. OS -
    oculus sinister - left eye.
  473. OU -
    oculus uterque - either or each eye.
  474. P -
    used to abbreviate phosphorus or denote the phosphate group.
  475. PAP -
    Prostatic Acid Phosphate - enzyme normal present in trace amounts in the blood, found in much higher levels in some patients with prostate cancer, especially if the cancer has spread.
  476. P.E.-
    physical exam
  477. pH-
    power of hydrogen, a measure of the acidity of a substance; the lower the pH, the more acidic the substance is
  478. PKU-
    phenylketonuria, a metabolic disorder that is caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites (as phenylpyruvic acid) in the blood and their excess excretion in the urine, that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and that causes usually severe mental retardation, seizures, eczema, and abnormal body odor unless phenylalanine is restricted from the diet beginning at birth—abbreviation
  479. PMN-
    polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte, a white blood cell containing a segmented lobular nucleus; an eosinophil, basophil, or neutrophil. See also granulocyte
  480. PND-
    paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, a disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress that awaken the person, usually after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. This occurs because of increased fluid central circulation with reclining position. It is most commonly caused by pulmonary edema resulting from congestive heart failure. The attacks are often accompanied by coughing, a feeling of suffocation, cold sweat, and tachycardia with a gallop rhythm. Sleeping with the head propped up on pillows may prevent PND, but treatment of the underlying cause is required to prevent fluid from accumulating in the lungs.
  481. P.O.-
    per os (Latin), orally
  482. Poly-
    many
  483. p.r.n-
    pro re nata (Latin), as needed
  484. Pt-
    1. Patient; 2. Pint; 3. Prothrombin time- group of blood tests that assess the clotting ability of blood, physical therapy
  485. PVC-
    premature ventricular contraction
  486. q. 2 hours-
    every 2 hours
  487. qns-
    “quantity not sufficient,” An abbreviation indicating that the material–eg, blood, urine, submitted for analysis is insufficient for requested test
  488. RBC-
    red blood cell
  489. REM-
    is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements
  490. RLQ-
    Right lower quadrant, the lower-right quarter of the abdomen.
  491. R.N.-
    registered nurse
  492. RNA-
    single-strand molecule containing nucleotide bases of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)
  493. ROM-
    range of motion
  494. RUQ-
    Right upper quadrant
  495. Rx-
    medical prescription
  496. š
    without
  497. SLE-
    Systemic lupus erythematosus.
  498. SOB-
    shortness of breath
  499. STD-
    sexually transmitted disease
  500. T-
    Tuberculosis
  501. TIA-
    Transient ischemic attack.
  502. VA-
    Ventriculoatrial- Relating to both ventricles and atria, especially to the sequential passage of conduction in the retrograde direction from ventricle to atrium.
  503. t.i.d.:
    three time a day
  504. tntc:
    too numerous to count (often used when referencing culture count, i.e. a “lawn” of bacteria)
  505. TPN:
    total parenteral nutrition (all required nutrients incl. fat, protein, calories, vitamins, & minerals administered intravenously)
  506. TPR:
    temperature, pulse, respiration
  507. TSH:
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (secreted by pituitary gland, controls T4 release by thyroid gland)
  508. UA:
    urinanalysis
  509. UGI:
    upper gastrointestinal
  510. URI:
    upper respiratory infection
  511. UTI:
    urinary tract infection
  512. UV:
    ultraviolet
  513. VA:
    viral antigen
  514. VLDL:
    very-low-density-lipoprotein
  515. VSD:
    ventricular septal defect
  516. WBC:
    white blood cell
  517. Wt.
    weight
  518. analgesic:
    pertaining to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain
  519. nasotracheal:
    pertaining to the nose and the trachea
  520. antipyretic:
    relieving/reducing fever
  521. glycosuria:
    the abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine
  522. nephrolithiasis:
    a condition of kidney stones; also known as renal calculi
  523. nephromalacia:
    softening of the kidneys
  524. nephrotoxic:
    toxic or damaging to the kidneys
  525. oliguria:
    secretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output
  526. polyuria:
    the excretion of excessively large amounts of urine
  527. pyelogram:
    an xray that provides pictures of the kidneys, ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.
  528. pyuria:
    the presence of pus in the urine, usually a sign of an infection of the urinary tract
  529. renal:
    relating to, involving, or located in the region of the kidneys
  530. Uremia:
    an excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood; characteristic of renal failure
  531. Euthyroid:
    the state of having normal thyroid function
  532. Exophthalmos:
    a ‘bulging’ of the eyes characteristic of patients with hyperthyroidism
  533. Goiter:
    an uncharacteristic enlargement of the thyroid gland
  534. Ophthalmology:
    the study of eyes
  535. Polyphagia:
    excessive eating; gluttony
  536. Hemiplegia:
    paralysis of one side of the body
  537. Hyperinsulinism:
    increased levels of insulin in the blood
  538. Hyperopia:
    farsightedness
  539. Hyperthyroidism:
    an unusual increase in thyroid hormone secretion, manifesting as weight loss, tremors, increasing BP, breast enlargement and tachycardia
  540. Hypoglycemia:
    an abnormally low level of glucose in the circulating blood
  541. Icterus:
    syn. for jaundice. A yellowish staining of the integument, sclerae and deeper tissues
  542. Ichthyosis:
    congenital disorder of keratinization characterized by noninflammatory dryness and scaling of the skin
  543. Integument –
    the enveloping membrane of the body including epidermis, dermis, hair, nails, sudoriferous/sebaceous glands, mammary glands, and subcutaneous tissues
  544. keloid –
    a nodular firm movable non-encapsulated often linear mass of hyperplastic scar tissue, progressive scar formation without regression,  tender, irregularly distributed bands of collagen, occurs in dermis and next to subcutaneous tissue, usually after trauma, surgery, or severe cutaneous disease
  545. macule –
    circumscribed flat area of skin different in color or texture from surround tissue less than 0.5cm in diameter (a patch is larger than this)
  546. nodule –
    solid mass of skin which can be observed as an elevation or can be palpated usually 0.5 cm or more in diameter
  547. papule –
    small solid elevation of the skin less than 0.5cm in diameter
  548. pediculosis –
    infestation with louse can be pediculosis pubis with crab like lice (pthirus pubis) or pediculosis corporis (caused by pediculus humanus humanus) body louse deposits eggs on clothing or pediculosis capitus (head louse, pediculus humanus capitis)
  549. petechiae –
    pinpoint flat round red spots under the skin cause by intradermal hemorrhage less than 2mm in diameter
  550. plaque –
    an elevated area of skin more than .5cm in diameter with broad flat surface
  551. pustule –
    visible accumulation of pus in the skin
  552. sebum –
    the secretion of the sebaceous glands
  553. ulcer –
    a defect or loss of dermis and epidermis produced by sloughing of necrotic tissue
  554. urticaria –
    wheals in skin resulting from release of histamine or other vasoactive substances (wheal – elevated white or pink compressible papule or plaque produced by dermal edema, a red flare often surrounds it)
  555. vesicle –
    circumscribed elevation of the skin less than 0.5cm in diameter and contains liquid (small blister)
  556. xerosis –
    pathologic dryness of the skin (xeroderma), the conjunctiva (xerophthalmia), or mucous membranes
  557. laparotomy -
    surgical incision into the abdominal cavity thorough the loin or flank (between ribs and pelvis)
  558. menopause –
    the end of menstruation
  559. menorrhagia -
    Excessively heavy menstrual flow with cycles of normal length. It is also called hypermenorrhea
  560. menses -
    monthly flow of blood and cellular debris from the uterus that begins at puberty and ceases at menopause. Also called catamenia, emmenia, menstrual period
  561. menstruation -
    the cyclic, physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and muscosal tissues from the nonpregnant uterus; it is under hormonal control and normally recurs usually at approximately four-week intervals, except during pregnancy and lactation, throughout the reproductive period (puberty through menopause)
  562. metrorrhagia -
    uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation. It may be caused by uterine lesions and may be a sign of a urogenital malignancy, especially cervical cancer
  563. oophorectomy -
    surgical removal of one or both ovaries. It is also called ovariectomy or ovarian ablation. If one ovary is removed, a woman may continue to menstruate and have children. If both ovaries are removed, menstruation stops and a woman loses the ability to have children
  564. orchidectomy -
    surgical removal of one or both testes. It may be indicated for serious disease or injury to the testis or to control cancer of the prostate by removing a source of androgenic hormones
  565. orchiditis -
    (orchitis) an inflammation of the testis, accompanied by swelling, pain, fever, and a sensation of heaviness in the affected area
  566. orchiopexy -
    Surgical freeing of an undescended testicle with implantation into the scrotum
  567. prenatal -
    occurring or existing before birth, referring to both the care of the woman during pregnancy and the growth and development of the fetus
  568. prostatitis -
    an inflammation of the prostate gland, a common condition in adult males. Often caused by infection, prostatitis may develop rapidly (acute) or slowly (chronic)
  569. salpingitis
    Inflammation of a fallopian tube or eustachian tube
  570. vaginitis
    Inflammation of the vagina
  571. vasectomy
    a surgical procedure performed on males in which the vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal vesicles) are cut, tied, cauterized (burned or seared) or otherwise interrupted. The semen no longer contains sperm after the tubes are cut, so conception cannot occur. The testicles continue to produce sperm, but they die and are absorbed by the body

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