Unit 2: Tissues

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Unit 2: Tissues
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  1. What is a Tissue?
    a group of cells with similar origin and function
  2. What are the four major types of tissues and what do they do?
    Epithelial tissues: cover surfaces, line cavities, form secretory parts of glands 

    Connective tissues: connect other tissues, support, protect, transport (blood), insulate (fat)

    Muscle tissues: movement

    Nervous tissue: recognizing and responding to stimuli (changes in environment), transfer information
  3. Embryonic Tissue is formed by what?
    by embryonic stem cells that arise 13-14 days after fertilization
  4. What are the 3 layers that Embryonic stem cells that form?
    Ectoderm (outer) – forms skin and nervous system 

    Mesoderm (middle) – forms muscle, bone and blood vessels

    Endoderm (inner) – forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives
  5. Epithelial Tissue: Features?
    •Closely packed cells (cell junctions) 

    •Little extracellular matrix

    •Single (simple) or multi-layered (stratified)

    •Associated with underlying connective tissue

    •Avascular (no blood vessels)

    •Regeneration (mitotic cell division)

    •Polarity
  6. Epithelial Tissue: Polarity
    •Apical surface - free edge exposed to body exterior or cavity 

    • •Basal surface - attached to basement membrane
    • --specialized type of extra- cellular material secreted by epithelial & connective cells 
    • --important to tissue repair
  7. Classification of Epithelial Tissue:

    See Table: 4.1 p.113
    • Number of layers:      Shape of cells:
    • Simple                           Squamous
    • Stratified                       Cuboidal 
    •                                     Columnar
  8. Types of Epithelial Tissue:
    • Simple Tissue 
    • Simple Squamous*
    • Simple Cuboidal*
    • Simple Columnar*
    • Pseudostratified Columnar*

    • Stratified Tissue
    • *Defined by the shape of the outer cells

    • Stratified Squamous*
    • Stratified Columnar
    • Stratified Cuboidal
    • Transitional*
  9. Simple Squamous Epithelium

    *Table 4.2a
    Function: filtration, diffusion, secretion, protection 

    • Location:
    • •endothelium (lining of blood and lymphatic vessels, heart)
    • •mesothelium (serous membranes of ventral body cavity)
    • •kidneys, lungs
  10. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium:

    *Table 4.2b
    • Function
    • •secretion 
    • •absorption 

    • Location:
    • •kidneys 
    • •glands
  11. Simple Columnar Epithelium: 

    *Table 4.2 c
    • Function
    • •secretion 
    • •absorption 

    • Location:
    • •digestive, respiratory & reproductive systems 

    • Modifications:
    • •Cilia - movement of materials; e.g., uterine tubes 
    • •Microvilli - increase surface area for absorption; small intestine 
    • •Goblet cells - secrete mucous for lubrication; GI
  12. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

    *Table 4.4a
    • •false (pseudo) layers 
    • •nuclei at different levels give appearance of being multilayered 
    • •all cells rest on basement membrane but NOT all reach free surface 

    Function: secretion

    Location: respiratory system

    • Modifications:
    • –cilia - respiratory system 
    • –goblet cells - respiratory system
  13. Stratified Squamous Epithelium

    *Table 4.3a
    • Function:
    • •protection against abrasion

    • Location:
    • •Keratinized (epidermis of skin)
    • –contains keratin (water-proof protein)

    • •Non-keratinized (mouth, esophagus, vagina, anus)
    • –lacks keratin
  14. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

    *Table 4.3b
    • Function: 
    • •protection
    • •absorption
    • •secretion

    • Location:
    • •ducts of sweat & salivary glands
  15. Stratified Columnar Epithelium

    *Table 4.3c
    • Function: 
    • •protection 
    • •secretion 

    • Location:
    • •male urethra
    • •mammary gland ducts
  16. Transitional Epithelium

    *Table 4.4b
    • •Stretched - uppermost cells are squamous 
    • •Relaxed - uppermost cells are cuboidal 

    • Function:
    • •capable of  stretching to accommodate fluctuations in fluid volume

    • Location:
    • –urinary system
  17. Cell Connections
    • Tight junctions - tight seals between cells 
    • •prevent movement of substances
    • •stomach & urinary bladder

    • Desmosomes - disc-shaped structures
    • •resist stretching & twisting 
    • •skin epidermis, heart 

    • Gap junctions - protein channels 
    • •allow transfer of ions à electric signaling between cells 
    • •cardiac & smooth muscle tissue
  18. Simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by:
    • a)fibroblasts 
    • b)a rich vascular supply
    • c)cilia
    • d)dense microvilli
  19. Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually associated with secretion and absorption.
    TRUE/FALSE
  20. Glands
    •Composed primarily of epithelium with supporting network of connective tissue 

    Endocrine glands secrete hormones into blood (by way of interstitial fluid)

    • •e.g., pituitary gland, adrenal gland, pancreas
    • *will be covered in Unit XI & XII
  21. Glands

    *Figure 4.4
    • Exocrine glands secrete products into ducts 
    • •classified by shape & complexity 
    • •classified by mode of secretion

    • merocrine glands - secrete product; sweat glands
    • apocrine glands – secrete product + fragments of cells; mammary glands
    • holocrine glands – product + entire cell; oil glands
  22. Connective Tissue (CT):  Features
    • •well-innervated 
    • •highly vascular (except cartilage) 
    • •few cells embedded in large amount of extracellular (outside the cell) matrix 
    • •structural elements: matrix and cells 
    • –each type of CT has its own associated cell type & matrix
    • •all CT arise from mesenchymal cells
  23. CT: Structural Elements - Matrix

    *Figure 4.5
    = consists of ground substance, fibers and fluid 

    • Ground substance
    • •shapeless
    • •contains nonfibrous proteins (hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans) 
    • •consistency varies from rock-hard (bone) to watery fluid (plasma)
  24. CT: Matrix - Fibers (Proteins)

    *Figure 4.5
    • Collagen 
    • –thick, most abundant fibers
    • –Strong, resists pulling tension

    • Reticular
    • –fine strands of collagen
    • –form network around blood vessels, soft organs, basement membrane

    • Elastic (elastin)
    • –stretch and recoil without breakage
    • –skin, lungs, blood vessels
  25. Connective Tissue: Cells
    Blasts – create matrix (mitotically active) 

    • What does it mean?
    • –e.g., fibroblasts, osteoblasts

    • Cytes – maintain matrix (mature cell)
    • –e.g., adipocytes, osteocytes

    • Clasts – break down (reabsorb) matrix
    • –e.g., osteoclasts
  26. Types of Connective Tissue

    *Table 4.6
    • Embryonic CT 
    • Mesenchyme (irregularly shaped osteoblasts & semifluid matix)
    • Mucous (support umbilical cord blood vessels)

    • Adult CT
    • Connective tissue proper – Loose and Dense
    • Supporting CT – Cartilage and Bone
    • Fluid CT – Blood and Hematopoietic tissue
  27. Review: CT Proper: Loose CT
    •areolar, adipose and reticular 

    • Areolar *Table 4.8
    • •contains three types of fibers
    • •cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells

    • What is the function of each cell type?
    • •water and solute reservoir
    • •associated with most epithelial membranes
    • –forms lamina propria of mucous membranes
    • –forms papillary layer of dermis
  28. Review: Loose CT - Adipose

    *Table 4.8
    • •adipocytes, fibers & small extracellular matrix 
    • •insulates, stores energy, absorbs shock
    • •subcutaneous areas & around organs
    • •liposuction
  29. Loose CT - Reticular

    *Table 4.8
    • •network of reticular fibers irregularly arranged 
    • •cells – dendritic (immune) cells, microphages
    • •forms framework of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow
  30. CT Proper: Dense CT
    • Dense Regular 
    • –Collagenous
    • –Elastic

    • Dense Irregular
    • –Collagenous
    • –Elastic
  31. Review: Dense Regular Collagenous
    •densely packed parallel collagen fibers 

    function: provides strength & resists tension in one direction

    location: tendons (muscle-bone); ligaments (bone-bone), aponeuroses (wide tendons)
  32. Dense Regular Elastic

    *Table 4.9b
    • •abundant elastic fibers (elastin=yellow color) 
    • •parallel bundles of collagen fibers

    function: stretch and recoil

    location: elastic ligaments of vocal folds and between vertebrae
  33. Dense Irregular CT
    • •randomly oriented fibers 
    • •withstand stretching in all directions

    • Dense Irregular Collagenous
    • •collagen fibers - provide strength
    • •dermis 
    • •fibrous capsules around some organs, e.g., kidneys, testes, heart (fibrous pericardium) 
    • •perichondrium, periosteum
  34. As we age…
    •Tissues change (as a result of changing cells) affects organ function and structure that decrease: 

    • –Lung capacity by 50%
    • –Muscle strength by 45% 
    • –Kidneys by 30% 

    Why?

    •Collagen & elastin decrease --> tissue stiffer, less elastic --> less efficient

    • •Fat content changes
    • –Male – increases until age 60, then gradually decreases
    • –Female – fat accumulates continuously

    •Total amount of water decreases --> slower metabolism --> slower response to drugs

    •Tissue atrophy --> decrease in mass of most organs

    Would it affect function of the organ?
  35. Supporting CT: Cartilage
    • •avascular 
    • •perichondrium = dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage (supplies blood)
    • •lack innervation
    • •cells = chondroblasts (during cartilage formation) and chondrocytes (mature) found in lacunae (lacuna) 

    • •types:
    • Hyaline Cartilage 
    • Elastic Cartilage 
    • Fibrocartilage 
  36. Review: Hyaline Cartilage

    *Table 4.10a
    • •most abundant 
    • •collagen fibers (not visible) make it strong, yet pliable 
    • •tip of nose, respiratory system, epiphyseal plate (growing bone), fetal skeleton, articular cartilage, ribs 

    Which part of a bone is covered with the articular cartilage?  Explain why.
  37. Review: Fibrocartilage

    *Table 4.10b
    • •thick bundles of collagen fibers 
    • •compressible and tough
    • •intervertebral disks, menisci (knee), symphysis pubis
  38. Review: Elastic Cartilage

    *Table 4.10c
    • •elastic fibers 
    • •provides rigidity and flexibility
    • •allow recoil after bending
    • •external ear (pinna), epiglottis and auditory tubes
  39. Review: Supporting CT: Bone
    • Functions
    • •forms the skeletal system
    • •provides support,
    • •movement (muscle attachment),
    • •protection,
    • •hemopoiesis ( hematopoiesis)= blood cell formation

    • Features:
    • •osteocytes in hard matrix (calcium, magnesium and phosphate salts);
    • •collagen fibers and other proteins
  40. Review: Types of Bone

    *Table 4.11a
    • Cancellous (spongy) bone 
    • –plates of bone called trabeculae
    • –spaces between trabeculae are filled with bone marrow and blood vessels
    • –found in interior of bones of the skull, vertebrae, sternum, pelvis, and ends of long bones.

    • Compact bone
    • –based on osteon (haversian system)
    • –outer portion of all bones and shafts of long bones
  41. Review: Fluid CT: Blood

    *Table 4.12a
    • •cells & cell fragments (suspended in matrix-plasma) 
    • leukocytes = white blood cells (WBCs)
    • erythrocytes = red blood cells (RBCs) 
    • platelets (cell fragments) 

    •contains solutes (ions, nutrients, wastes) and suspended substances, e.g., large proteins

    • Functions
    • •fights diseases 
    • •transports substances, 
    • e.g., nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gasses
  42. Fluid CT: Hematopoietic Tissue

    *Table 4.12b
    • Function & location
    • –forms blood cells (red bone marrow)
    • –stores lipids (yellow bone marrow)
  43. Review: Muscle Tissue

    *Table 4.13
    • •high  metabolic rate 
    • •highly vascular (needs good supply of oxygen & nutrients when active) 
    • •produce movement of body parts including movement of materials through tubes 
    • cells = muscle fibers 

    • •types:
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  44. Review: Muscle Tissue: Skeletal

    *Table 4.14a
    • Location - attached to bones 
    • Function - voluntary movement of skeleton & control of sphincters  
    • Cells 
    • –large, long, cylindrical & striated
    • multinucleate (develops from union of cells)
  45. Review: Muscle Tissues: Cardiac

    *Table 4.14b
    • Location - myocardium (heart) 
    • Function –pumps blood through the body
    • Cells
    • – striated,  involuntary, branching
    • uninucleate
    • Intercalated disks (cell to cell junctions) allow rapid spread of impulses from one cell to another
  46. Review: Muscle Tissues: Smooth

    *Table 4.14c
    Location - walls of hollow organs 

    • Function:
    • –regulates size of organs
    • –forces substances through tubes

    • Cells
    • –tapered ends, no visible striations
    • –involuntary
    • –uninucleate
  47. Review: Nervous Tissue
    • Functions
    • recognize environmental changes 
    • integrates sensory inputs and motor outputs 
    • controls motor outputs (muscle contraction, glandular secretion) 
  48. Review: Nervous Tissue: 
    Structural Components

    *Figure 4.6
    • Neurons 
    • •conduct information (sensation, motor impulses)

    • •Neuroglia
    • protect, insulate, support neurons
  49. The presence of lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels would indicate:
    • a.Cartilage tissue 
    • b.Fibrocartilage tissue
    • c.Osseous tissue
    • d.Areolar tissue
  50. Most connective tissues have regenerative capacity while most epithelial tissues do not. 
    (TRUE/ FALSE) 
  51. Epithelial Membranes
    • Consist of
    • epithelial tissue and 
    • connective tissue (CT) 

    • Three types:
    • Cutaneous Membrane (“dry” membrane)
    • Mucous Membranes (“wet” membranes)
    • Serous Membranes (“wet” membranes)
  52. Cutaneous Membrane

    *Figure 4.7
    •forms skin

    • consists of:
    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis)

    • connective tissue (dermis)
    • •areolar CT forms papillary layer, and
    • •dense irregular CT forms reticular layer
  53. Mucous Membranes

    *Figure 4.7
    •line body cavities open to the outside (digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts) 

    non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium or stratified columnar, or simple columnar

    • •protect, absorb, secrete
    • –some contain goblet cells or mucous glands (mucus)
  54. Serous Membranes

    *Figure 4.7
    • •Line cavities not open to the exterior (except pelvic cavity) 
    • parietal layer - lines wall of cavity 
    • visceral layer - overlies organs

    •Secrete serous fluid (lubricates to prevent friction)

    • Consist of:
    • –simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) 
    • –areolar CT
  55. Serous Membranes: Location
    • Ventral body cavities and organs: 
    • pericardium - surrounds and covers heart
    • pleura - covers lungs and lines thoracic cavity
    • peritoneum - abdominal cavity and organs

    Inflammation of serosa due to irritation and/or disease

    • pleurisy - in pleural cavity
    • peritonitis - in abdominal cavity 
    • pericarditis - in pericardium

    •The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity is called __________.
  56. Synovial Membrane

    *Figure 4.7
    • •modified connective tissue 
    • •covers all internal joint surfaces that are not covered by hyaline cartilage
    • •produces fluid rich in hyaluronic acid (facilitate smooth movement within joints)
  57. Tissue Repair

    *Table 4.9
    Epithelial tissues usually repair/regenerate well 

    Connective tissues are often replaced by fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis=scar tissue)

    • Events of tissue repair, e.g., skin repair
    • •inflammation (WBC, clotting proteins, fluid)
    • •blood clot formation
    • •new epidermis is formed– epithelium grows into wound
    • •granulation tissue is formed – fibroblasts proliferate
    • •granulation tissue is replaced with dermis
  58. Let’s apply

    Why tendon tears or breaks are difficult to repair both physiologically and surgically?

    What is a scar? 
    • Answer 1
    • •Composed of dense regular connective tissue
    • •Few cells and vascular supply is poor

    • Answer 2:
    • •Occurs when wounds are very deep and cannot close

    Connective tissue fills in the space before epithelial tissue can cover it

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