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When do you start acquiring immunity?
The body supports a wide range of .
Name 4 habitats the body supports.
Temp, pH, nutrient, oxygen tension
What is acquired flora?
normal bacteria that we come in contact with
What are two beneficial outcomes for acquired flora?
- removed by immune system
- microbial antagonism
What are the two adverse effects of acquired flora?
- escape the immune system
- multiply and disrupt tissue and organs
What are the two most common places for pathogens to enter the body?
What is the hardest type of culture to obtain a pure culture from? And why?
Blood because there is always some form of bacteria on the skin and swab.
What would happen to a human if you removed all the bacteria in and on them?
What are the four methods of newborn exposure?
- Mother's birth canal
- Mother's breast milk
What are the two types of pathogens?
True and opportunistic
What is a true pathogen?
- Pathogen that causes disease in healthy individuals.
- is associated with a specific disease.
What is an opportunistic pathogen?
- Pathogen that causes disease in immune compromised host
- Gaun access to sterile regions
What happens if you kill off the body's good flora?
bad flora will flourish and become an infection
What are some factors that weaken host defenses?
- Old age or extreme youth
- Surgery or organ transplants
- Immunity deficiency
- Physical and mental stress
- Organic disease
What is virulence?
The virus or bacteria's ability to establish itself in the host
Most pathogens have specific portals of entry such as...
- GI tract
- Resp tract
What does Staphylococcus aureus on the skin cause?
What does haemophilus aegyptius cause?
What does streptococcus pneumoniae cause?
What does fungi-crytococcus cause?
Name three pathogens found in the urogenital area.
- Virus- Human papillomavirus (Genital warts)
- Protozoan- Trichomonas (trichomoniasis)
- Bacteria- Neisseriagonorrhoeae (gonorrhea)
What bacteria can penetrate the placenta barrier?
What virus infects child through birth canal?
Herpes simplex virus
What is the infectious dose?
- Minimum number of bacteria required to cause disease
- Low ID= high virulence
What are some antiphagocytic factors?
- Capsule- prevents phagocytosis
- Leukocidins- chemical that is fatal to phagocytes
- Some microbes can survive inside phagocytes
What are three virulence factors?
What does -ase mean?
What are exoenzymes?
enzymes produced within gram positive bacteria cell, then released outside of the cell to begin the process of extracellular digestion.
Name 4 types of exoenzymes.
What is mucinase?
Exoenzyme that digests the protective coating on mucous membranes
What is keratinase?
exoenzyme that digest the principle component of skin and hair
What is collagenase?
Exoenzyme that digests the principle fiber of connective tissue
What is hyaluronidase?
exoenzyme that digests the substance that cements cells together
What are two types of bacterial toxins?
What are exotoxins?
- Toxins excreted from infected cell.
- Can either be gram pos or gram neg
- Highly toxic in small amounts
What are endotoxins?
- Gram neg cells that release toxins within the cell.
- membrane and fever associated
What is the process of infections and disease?
- Signs and symptoms
What does localized mean?
One specific area
What does systemic mean?
Throughout a whole body system
What does focal mean?
In a body part. ex: leg, arm, foot.
What is the difference between primary and secondary infections?
Primary infection causes initial disease and secondary infection occurs when immune system is down.
What are signs?
- Objective evidence based on observation
- ex: Inflammation- edema. granulomas, abscesses
What are symptoms?
- Subjective evidence based on patient
- Ex: Inflammation- fever, pain. soreness, swelling
What does the portal of exit enable?
Pathogens to spread to other hosts
Latency and sequelae
What does latency mean?
What does sequelae mean?
- Long term tissue and organ damage
- Ex: sequelae for TB= destroyed lung tissue
What is epidemiology?
The study of disease in populations
Who does the majority of epidemiology tracking?