Micro Chapter 13

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Author:
saturn1212
ID:
199999
Filename:
Micro Chapter 13
Updated:
2013-02-12 12:39:21
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Chapter 13
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Description:
Review of Ch 13 Micro
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  1. When do you start acquiring immunity?
    At birth
  2. The body supports a wide range of          .
    habitats
  3. Name 4 habitats the body supports.
    Temp, pH, nutrient, oxygen tension
  4. What is acquired flora?
    normal bacteria that we come in contact with
  5. What are two beneficial outcomes for acquired flora?
    • removed by immune system
    • microbial antagonism
  6. What are the two adverse effects of acquired flora?
    • escape the immune system
    • multiply and disrupt tissue and organs
  7. What are the two most common places for pathogens to enter the body?
    • Nose
    • Mouth
  8. What is the hardest type of culture to obtain a pure culture from? And why?
    Blood because there is always some form of bacteria on the skin and swab.
  9. What would happen to a human if you removed all the bacteria in and on them?
    Dead
  10. What are the four methods of newborn exposure?
    • Mother's birth canal
    • Mother's breast milk
    • Bottle-feeding
    • People
  11. What are the two types of pathogens?
    True and opportunistic
  12. What is a true pathogen?
    • Pathogen that causes disease in healthy individuals.
    • is associated with a specific disease.
  13. What is an opportunistic pathogen?
    • Pathogen that causes disease in immune compromised host
    • Gaun access to sterile regions
  14. What happens if you kill off the body's good flora?
    bad flora will flourish and become an infection
  15. What are some factors that weaken host defenses?
    • Old age or extreme youth
    • Surgery or organ transplants
    • Immunity deficiency
    • Physical and mental stress
    • Organic disease
  16. What is virulence?
    The virus or bacteria's ability to establish itself in the host
  17. Most pathogens have specific portals of entry such as...
    • skin
    • GI tract
    • Resp tract
    • Urogenital
    • Placenta
  18. What does Staphylococcus aureus on the skin cause?
    Boils
  19. What does haemophilus aegyptius cause?
    Pink eye
  20. What does streptococcus pneumoniae cause?
    • sore throat
    • meningitis
  21. What does fungi-crytococcus cause?
    pneumonia
  22. Name three pathogens found in the urogenital area.
    • Virus- Human papillomavirus (Genital warts)
    • Protozoan- Trichomonas (trichomoniasis)
    • Bacteria- Neisseriagonorrhoeae (gonorrhea)
  23. What bacteria can penetrate the placenta barrier?
    Syphilis spirochete
  24. What virus infects child through birth canal?
    Herpes simplex virus
  25. What is the infectious dose?
    • Minimum number of bacteria required to cause disease
    • Low ID= high virulence
  26. What are some antiphagocytic factors?
    • Capsule- prevents phagocytosis
    • Leukocidins- chemical that is fatal to phagocytes
    • Some microbes can survive inside phagocytes
  27. What are three virulence factors?
    • exoenzymes
    • toxins
    • capsules
  28. What does -ase mean?
    enzyme
  29. What are exoenzymes?
    enzymes produced within gram positive bacteria cell, then released outside of the cell to begin the process of extracellular digestion.
  30. Name 4 types of exoenzymes.
    • Mucinase
    • Keratinase
    • Collagenase
    • Hyaluronidase
  31. What is mucinase?
    Exoenzyme that digests the protective coating on mucous membranes
  32. What is keratinase?
    exoenzyme that digest the principle component of skin and hair
  33. What is collagenase?
    Exoenzyme that digests the principle fiber of connective tissue
  34. What is hyaluronidase?
    exoenzyme that digests the substance that cements cells together
  35. What are two types of bacterial toxins?
    • Exotoxins
    • Endotoxins
  36. What are exotoxins?
    • Toxins excreted from infected cell.
    • Can either be gram pos or gram neg
    • Highly toxic in small amounts
  37. What are endotoxins?
    • Gram neg cells that release toxins within the cell.
    • membrane and fever associated
  38. What is the process of infections and disease?
    • Establishment
    • Signs and symptoms
  39. What does localized mean?
    One specific area
  40. What does systemic mean?
    Throughout a whole body system
  41. What does focal mean?
    In a body part. ex: leg, arm, foot.
  42. What is the difference between primary and secondary infections?
    Primary infection causes initial disease and secondary infection occurs when immune system is down.
  43. What are signs?
    • Objective evidence based on observation
    • ex: Inflammation- edema. granulomas, abscesses
  44. What are symptoms?
    • Subjective evidence based on patient
    • Ex: Inflammation- fever, pain. soreness, swelling
  45. What does the portal of exit enable?
    Pathogens to spread to other hosts
  46. Persistence includes...
    Latency and sequelae
  47. What does latency mean?
    Dormant
  48. What does sequelae mean?
    • Long term tissue and organ damage
    • Ex: sequelae for TB= destroyed lung tissue
  49. What is epidemiology?
    The study of disease in populations
  50. Who does the majority of epidemiology tracking?
    CDC

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