Alcamos Ch 4

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medic11
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200005
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Alcamos Ch 4
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2013-02-12 11:54:22
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BI 310
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Ch 4 Cards
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  1. Members of Archaea & Bacteria that like to live in extreme environments are known as ____.
    Extremophiles
  2. Woese originally lumped archaea & bacteria together in the same category & called them Archaebacteria. What are the 2 reasons that has since been changed?
    • Not all members are extremophiles or related to them
    • They are not Bacteria--they are archaea
  3. Which phyla is the largest & most diverse grp of species, includes many familiar gram-neg genera such as Escherichia as well as recognized human pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Neisseria, Yersinia & Vibrio?
    Proteobacteria
  4. Animals having jointed appendages & a segmented body are known as ____.
    Arthropods
  5. Which phyla contains the following: Gram Pos, Thick "skin" cell wall structure Include Bacillus, Clostridium, Staph, Strep, Mycoplasma
    Firmicutes
  6. What are 2 characteristics of actinobacteria & 2 important genus?
    • Gram-pos
    • Branched Filaments resembling fungi
    • Streptomyces → antibiotics
    • Mycobacterium → TB
  7. What species is phylogenetically related to the gram-pos species, Can exist as unicellular, filamentous or colonial forms Was once known as blue green algae but may be black, yellow, green, red
    Cyanobacteria
  8. A sudden increase in the numbers of cells of an organism in an environment in known as ____.
    Blooms
  9. What phylum of bacteria is responsible for the periodic redness of the Red Sea & the "oxygen revolution?"
    Blooms of cyanobacteria
  10. What phylum are characterized by causing chlamydia, are so small that they cannot be seen with light microscope & are cultivated only within living cells?
    Chlamydiae
  11. What phylum contains more than 340 gram-neg species w/unique cell body that coils into long helix & moves in a corkscrew pattern?
    Spirochaetes
  12. What are 2 common spirochaetes?
    • Treponema pallidum responsible for syphilis
    • Borrelia responsible for Lyme disease & relapsing fever
  13. Bacteria that grow in high temperature areas are known as ____.
    Hyperthermophiles
  14. The grp euryarchaeota contains methane producing organisms that are killed by oxygen are called ____.
    Methanogens
  15. Euryarchaeota that require O₂ for energy metabolism & need high concen of salt to grow & reproduce are called ____ ____.
    Extreme Halophiles
  16. Histone proteins are not present in Bacteria but are in ___ & ___.
    Archaea & Eukarya
  17. Peptidoglycan cell walls are present in ___ but not in archaea or ___.
    • Bacteria
    • Eukarya
  18. Bacteria & Eukarya cannot survive in environments exceeding 100⁰C however ___ can.
    Archaea
  19. A bacterial cell with a rod shape is called a ___.
    Bacillus
  20. Most bacillus occur singly, in prs called ___ & or in a long chain called ____.
    • Diplobacillus
    • Streptobacillus
  21. A spherically shaped bacterial cell is known as a ___.
    Coccus
  22. Bacillus range in length from ___μm - ___μm
    0.5 - 20
  23. Coccus tend to be ___ μm - ___μm in diameter.
    0.5 - 1.0
  24. Coccus can be single, ____ (pair), ___ (grp of 4), ____ (cluster) or ___ (chain).
    • Diplococcus
    • Tetrad
    • Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus
  25. What are the 3 forms of spiral bacteria?
    • Vibrio
    • Spirillum
    • Spirochete
  26. The ___ is a curved rod that resembles a comma.
    Vibrio
  27. The spiral form ___ has a helical shape w/a thick rigid cell wall & flagella that assist in mvmt.
    Spirillum
  28. The spiral shaped form known as ____ has a thin, flexible cell walnut no flagella in the traditional sense.
    Spirochete
  29. How do spirochete move?
    By contractions of endoflagella that run the length of the cell
  30. A pathogen produced molecule or structure that allows the cell to invade or evade the immune sys & possibly cause disease is known as a ___ ___.
    Virulence Factor
  31. Numerous short thin fibers composed of protein that protrude fr most gram-neg bacteria are called ____.
    Pili
  32. The purpose of pili is to what?
    Attach cells to surfaces forming biofilms w/special adhesive molecules called adhesins
  33. What form of pili est contact between appropriate cells facilitating transfer of genetic material fr donor to recipient thru conjugation?
    Conjugation Pili
  34. What makes conjugation pili different fr adhesion pill?
    • They're longer
    • Only 1 or a few exist per cell
  35. Many bacterial & archaeal cells are motile by using remarkable "nannomachines" called ____.
    Flagella
  36. What are the 3 components of a flagellum?
    • Helical filament
    • Hook
    • Basal Body
  37. Flagella propel bacteria toward nutrient sources or attractants in a process known as ____.
    Chemotaxis
  38. Some bacterial cells can move about w/o flagella, moving along the long axis of bacillus or filamentous shaped cells. This mvmt is called?
    Gliding motility
  39. One that compares the chem environment & concentration fr 1 moment to the next utilizes a ____ ____ system.
    Temporel Sensing
  40. Many bacterial cells secrete an adhering layer of polysaccharides or polysaccharides & sm proteins called the ____.
    Glycocalyx
  41. If the glycocalyx is thick & covalently bound to the cell it is known as a ____.
    Capsule
  42. A thinner, loosely attached layer of glycocalyx is referred to as a ___ ___.
    Slime Layer
  43. What is the role of the glycocalyx?
    • Buffer between cell & external environment
    • Allows cells to attach to surfaces
    • Protection fr desiccation
  44. The ___ ___ provides structure & protects against cel lysis.
    Cell Wall
  45. A network of disaccharide chains (glycan Strands) cross linked by short peptides is called a ____.
    Peptidoglycan
  46. Each disaccharide of a peptidoglycan contains what?
    • N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
    • N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
  47. A poison that can activate inflammatory responses, leading to high fever, shock & organ failure is called an ____.
    Endotoxin
  48. ___-___ bacterial cells have a very thick, rigid peptidoglycan cell wall.
    Gram-Positive
  49. Gram-positive cell walls also contain a sugar-alcohol called ___ ___ that is essential for cell viability.
    Teichoic Acid
  50. Enzymes that break bonds in the peptidoglycan, thereby causing lysis of the cell are called ___ ___.
    Autolytic enzymes
  51. What 2 things make gram-negative cell walls different from gram-positive?
    • Peptidoglycan layer is only 1 or 2 layers of glycan
    • There is no teichoic acid present
  52. What is present in a gram-neg cell wall that makes it unique?
    Presence of an outer membrane separated fr the cell membrane by a gap called a periplasm
  53. What is contained in the periplasm?
    • Digestive enzymes
    • Transport proteins
  54. In a gram-neg cell the inner half of the outer membrane is composed phospholipids while the outer half is composed of what?
    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  55. A ____ consists of a polysaccharide attached to a unique lipid molecule known as lipid A.
    Lipopolysaccharide
  56. What are porins?
    Proteins that form pores in the outer membrane of a gram-neg cell through which sm hydrophilic molecules pass into the periplasm
  57. What is the most common cell wall among the archaea?
    A surface layer called the S-Layer
  58. What does the S-Layer consist of and where is it found?
    • Hexagonal patterns of protein or glycoprotein that self-assemble into a crystalline lattice pattern 5nm to 25nm thick.
    • S-Layer is most common cell wall in archaea
  59. A ___ or ___ membrane is a universal structure that separates external fr internal environments.
    Cell or Plasma
  60. Cells walls in archaea differ fr those in bacteria & eukarya how?
    Hydrophobic lipid tails are attached to glycerol heads via ether linkages rather than esther linkages
  61. The bacterial genus mycobacterium is related to gram pos bacteria however their cell wall is composed of a waxy lipid that is arranged in 2 layers covalently attached to the underlying peptidoglycan. This waxy lipid is known as?
    Mycolic acid
  62. Gram-pos or Gram-neg cell walls contain peptidoglycan?
    • Gram-pos - yes - thick
    • Gram-neg - yes - thin
  63. Which gram walls contain teichoic acids?
    Gram-pos
  64. Which gram cell walls utilize and outer membrane?
    Gram-neg
  65. Which gram cell walls contain lippopolusaccharides (LPS)?
    Gram-neg
  66. Which gram cell walls have porin proteins?
    Gram-neg
  67. Which gram cell walls utilize a periplasm?
    Gram-neg
  68. Explain the lipid monolayer found in archaeal cells.
    Fatty acid tails absent fr membranes & replaced by repeating 5-C units linked end to end to form lipid tails longer than fatty acid tails resulting in a monolayer rather than a bilayer
  69. What is the advantage to the monolayer found in archaeal cell walls?
    It prevents the layer fr peeling in 2 in hyperthermophiles
  70. Genetic elements capable of incorporating & transferring genetic info are called ____.
    Vectors
  71. Pili are composed of protein & found primarily & for what purpose?
    Gram-neg bacteria & used for attachment & genetic transfer
  72. Flagella are composed of ___ & used for ___ & are present in many rods & spirilla; few cocci; vary in # & placement.
    • Protein
    • Motility
  73. A structure composed of polysaccharides & sm proteins that provides a buffer to environment & helps w/attachment is called the ___.
    Glycocalyx
  74. The glycocalyx creates a capsule or slime layer does what?
    • Contributes to disease development
    • Found in plaque bacteria & biofilms
  75. What are the 3 functions of a cell wall?
    • Cell protection
    • Shape determination
    • Cell lysis prevention
  76. What internal structure exists as a single, closed loop chromosome, contains DNA & is site of essential genes?
    Nucleoid
  77. Plasmids are composed of ___ & are the site of nonessential genes & ____.
    • DNA
    • R-Plasmids
  78. Which one of the following is NOT a genus within the gram-pos bacteria -- Staphlococcus, Mathanogens, Mycoplasma, Bacillus & Clostridium?
    Mycoplasma
  79. The domain archaea includes all the following grps EXCEPT the (mycoplasms, Extreme Halophiles, Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota)
    Mycoplasms
  80. Spherical bacteria in chains would be referred to as a ____ arrangement.
    Streptococcus
  81. Intracellular organization in bacterial & archaeal species is centered around what 3 processes?
    • Sensing & responding to the environment
    • Compartmentation of metabolism
    • Growth & reproduction
  82. Which 1 of the following does NOT apply to pili (made of protein, allow for attachment, facilitate nutrient transport, contain adhesions)?
    Facilitate nutrient transport
  83. Capsules are similar to pili b/c both (contain DNA, Are made of protein, Contain dextran fibers, Permit attachment to surfaces)
    Permit attachment to surfaces
  84. Gram neg bacteria would stain ___ w/the gram stain & have ____ in the cell wall.
    • Orange-Red
    • Lipopolysaccharides
  85. The cell membrane of archaeal cells contains (A monolayer, Sterols, Ester linkages, All are correct).
    All are correct
  86. The mvmt of glucose into a cell occurs via . . .
    Facilitated Diffusion
  87. When comparing bacterial & archaeal cell membranes only bacterial cell membranes have (Three layers of phospholipids, phospholipid bilayer, are fluid, have ether linkages)?
    Phospholipid Bilayer
  88. Which of these is NOT true about the nucleoid (It contains a DNA chromosome, Represents a nonmembranous subcompartment, Represents an area devoid of ribosomes, Contains nonessential genetic info)?
    Contains nonessential genetic info
  89. Plasmids may carry ___ ___ genes.
    Antibiotic resistance
  90. Which of the following is NOT a subcompartment found in bacterial cells (Microcompartments, Volutin, Ribosomes, Mitochondria)?
    Mitochondria
  91. A polyprotein shell 100-200nm in diameter surrounding various types of enzymes is known as a ____.
    Microcompartment
  92. Microcompartments in cyanobacteria are called ___ & serve what function?
    • Carboxysomes
    • Enhance CO₂ fixation
  93. Cytoplasmic structures in the cytoplasm that store nutrients or the monomers of cellular structures are known as ____.
    Inclusions
  94. An inclusion found in diphtheria bacilli contain metachromatic granules or ___, which are deposits of polyphosphate along w/calcium & other ions.
    Voluntin
  95. An inclusion that is a cytoplasmic compartment built fr a water tight protein shell that generates & regulates buoyancy is what?
    Gas Vesicle
  96. The bacterial cytoskeleton (A. transports vesicles B. helps determine cell shape C. is organized identical to its eukaryotic counterpart D. centers the nucleoid)
    Helps to determine cell shape
  97. The bacterial cell is capable of (A. spatial separation of metabolic processes B. carrying out complex metabolic processes C. subcompartmentalizing biochemical processes D. All)
    All

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