Members of Archaea & Bacteria that like to live in extreme environments are known as ____.
Woese originally lumped archaea & bacteria together in the same category & called them Archaebacteria. What are the 2 reasons that has since been changed?
Not all members are extremophiles or related to them
They are not Bacteria--they are archaea
Which phyla is the largest & most diverse grp of species, includes many familiar gram-neg genera such as Escherichia as well as recognized human pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Neisseria, Yersinia & Vibrio?
Animals having jointed appendages & a segmented body are known as ____.
Which phyla contains the following: Gram Pos, Thick "skin" cell wall structure Include Bacillus, Clostridium, Staph, Strep, Mycoplasma
What are 2 characteristics of actinobacteria & 2 important genus?
Branched Filaments resembling fungi
Streptomyces → antibiotics
Mycobacterium → TB
What species is phylogenetically related to the gram-pos species, Can exist as unicellular, filamentous or colonial forms Was once known as blue green algae but may be black, yellow, green, red
A sudden increase in the numbers of cells of an organism in an environment in known as ____.
What phylum of bacteria is responsible for the periodic redness of the Red Sea & the "oxygen revolution?"
Blooms of cyanobacteria
What phylum are characterized by causing chlamydia, are so small that they cannot be seen with light microscope & are cultivated only within living cells?
What phylum contains more than 340 gram-neg species w/unique cell body that coils into long helix & moves in a corkscrew pattern?
What are 2 common spirochaetes?
Treponema pallidum responsible for syphilis
Borrelia responsible for Lyme disease & relapsing fever
Bacteria that grow in high temperature areas are known as ____.
The grp euryarchaeota contains methane producing organisms that are killed by oxygen are called ____.
Euryarchaeota that require O₂ for energy metabolism & need high concen of salt to grow & reproduce are called ____ ____.
Histone proteins are not present in Bacteria but are in ___ & ___.
Archaea & Eukarya
Peptidoglycan cell walls are present in ___ but not in archaea or ___.
A bacterial cell with a rod shape is called a ___.
Most bacillus occur singly, in prs called ___ & or in a long chain called ____.
A spherically shaped bacterial cell is known as a ___.
Bacillus range in length from ___μm - ___μm
0.5 - 20
Coccus tend to be ___ μm - ___μm in diameter.
0.5 - 1.0
Coccus can be single, ____ (pair), ___ (grp of 4), ____ (cluster) or ___ (chain).
What are the 3 forms of spiral bacteria?
The ___ is a curved rod that resembles a comma.
The spiral form ___ has a helical shape w/a thick rigid cell wall & flagella that assist in mvmt.
The spiral shaped form known as ____ has a thin, flexible cell walnut no flagella in the traditional sense.
How do spirochete move?
By contractions of endoflagella that run the length of the cell
A pathogen produced molecule or structure that allows the cell to invade or evade the immune sys & possibly cause disease is known as a ___ ___.
Numerous short thin fibers composed of protein that protrude fr most gram-neg bacteria are called ____.
The purpose of pili is to what?
Attach cells to surfaces forming biofilms w/special adhesive molecules called adhesins
What form of pili est contact between appropriate cells facilitating transfer of genetic material fr donor to recipient thru conjugation?
What makes conjugation pili different fr adhesion pill?
Only 1 or a few exist per cell
Many bacterial & archaeal cells are motile by using remarkable "nannomachines" called ____.
What are the 3 components of a flagellum?
Flagella propel bacteria toward nutrient sources or attractants in a process known as ____.
Some bacterial cells can move about w/o flagella, moving along the long axis of bacillus or filamentous shaped cells. This mvmt is called?
One that compares the chem environment & concentration fr 1 moment to the next utilizes a ____ ____ system.
Many bacterial cells secrete an adhering layer of polysaccharides or polysaccharides & sm proteins called the ____.
If the glycocalyx is thick & covalently bound to the cell it is known as a ____.
A thinner, loosely attached layer of glycocalyx is referred to as a ___ ___.
What is the role of the glycocalyx?
Buffer between cell & external environment
Allows cells to attach to surfaces
Protection fr desiccation
The ___ ___ provides structure & protects against cel lysis.
A network of disaccharide chains (glycan Strands) cross linked by short peptides is called a ____.
Each disaccharide of a peptidoglycan contains what?
N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
A poison that can activate inflammatory responses, leading to high fever, shock & organ failure is called an ____.
___-___ bacterial cells have a very thick, rigid peptidoglycan cell wall.
Gram-positive cell walls also contain a sugar-alcohol called ___ ___ that is essential for cell viability.
Enzymes that break bonds in the peptidoglycan, thereby causing lysis of the cell are called ___ ___.
What 2 things make gram-negative cell walls different from gram-positive?
Peptidoglycan layer is only 1 or 2 layers of glycan
There is no teichoic acid present
What is present in a gram-neg cell wall that makes it unique?
Presence of an outer membrane separated fr the cell membrane by a gap called a periplasm
What is contained in the periplasm?
In a gram-neg cell the inner half of the outer membrane is composed phospholipids while the outer half is composed of what?
A ____ consists of a polysaccharide attached to a unique lipid molecule known as lipid A.
What are porins?
Proteins that form pores in the outer membrane of a gram-neg cell through which sm hydrophilic molecules pass into the periplasm
What is the most common cell wall among the archaea?
A surface layer called the S-Layer
What does the S-Layer consist of and where is it found?
Hexagonal patterns of protein or glycoprotein that self-assemble into a crystalline lattice pattern 5nm to 25nm thick.
S-Layer is most common cell wall in archaea
A ___ or ___ membrane is a universal structure that separates external fr internal environments.
Cell or Plasma
Cells walls in archaea differ fr those in bacteria & eukarya how?
Hydrophobic lipid tails are attached to glycerol heads via ether linkages rather than esther linkages
The bacterial genus mycobacterium is related to gram pos bacteria however their cell wall is composed of a waxy lipid that is arranged in 2 layers covalently attached to the underlying peptidoglycan. This waxy lipid is known as?
Gram-pos or Gram-neg cell walls contain peptidoglycan?
Gram-pos - yes - thick
Gram-neg - yes - thin
Which gram walls contain teichoic acids?
Which gram cell walls utilize and outer membrane?
Which gram cell walls contain lippopolusaccharides (LPS)?
Which gram cell walls have porin proteins?
Which gram cell walls utilize a periplasm?
Explain the lipid monolayer found in archaeal cells.
Fatty acid tails absent fr membranes & replaced by repeating 5-C units linked end to end to form lipid tails longer than fatty acid tails resulting in a monolayer rather than a bilayer
What is the advantage to the monolayer found in archaeal cell walls?
It prevents the layer fr peeling in 2 in hyperthermophiles
Genetic elements capable of incorporating & transferring genetic info are called ____.
Pili are composed of protein & found primarily & for what purpose?
Gram-neg bacteria & used for attachment & genetic transfer
Flagella are composed of ___ & used for ___ & are present in many rods & spirilla; few cocci; vary in # & placement.
A structure composed of polysaccharides & sm proteins that provides a buffer to environment & helps w/attachment is called the ___.
The glycocalyx creates a capsule or slime layer does what?
Contributes to disease development
Found in plaque bacteria & biofilms
What are the 3 functions of a cell wall?
Cell lysis prevention
What internal structure exists as a single, closed loop chromosome, contains DNA & is site of essential genes?
Plasmids are composed of ___ & are the site of nonessential genes & ____.
Which one of the following is NOT a genus within the gram-pos bacteria -- Staphlococcus, Mathanogens, Mycoplasma, Bacillus & Clostridium?
The domain archaea includes all the following grps EXCEPT the (mycoplasms, Extreme Halophiles, Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota)
Spherical bacteria in chains would be referred to as a ____ arrangement.
Intracellular organization in bacterial & archaeal species is centered around what 3 processes?
Sensing & responding to the environment
Compartmentation of metabolism
Growth & reproduction
Which 1 of the following does NOT apply to pili (made of protein, allow for attachment, facilitate nutrient transport, contain adhesions)?
Facilitate nutrient transport
Capsules are similar to pili b/c both (contain DNA, Are made of protein, Contain dextran fibers, Permit attachment to surfaces)
Permit attachment to surfaces
Gram neg bacteria would stain ___ w/the gram stain & have ____ in the cell wall.
The cell membrane of archaeal cells contains (A monolayer, Sterols, Ester linkages, All are correct).
All are correct
The mvmt of glucose into a cell occurs via . . .
When comparing bacterial & archaeal cell membranes only bacterial cell membranes have (Three layers of phospholipids, phospholipid bilayer, are fluid, have ether linkages)?
Which of these is NOT true about the nucleoid (It contains a DNA chromosome, Represents a nonmembranous subcompartment, Represents an area devoid of ribosomes, Contains nonessential genetic info)?
Contains nonessential genetic info
Plasmids may carry ___ ___ genes.
Which of the following is NOT a subcompartment found in bacterial cells (Microcompartments, Volutin, Ribosomes, Mitochondria)?
A polyprotein shell 100-200nm in diameter surrounding various types of enzymes is known as a ____.
Microcompartments in cyanobacteria are called ___ & serve what function?
Enhance CO₂ fixation
Cytoplasmic structures in the cytoplasm that store nutrients or the monomers of cellular structures are known as ____.
An inclusion found in diphtheria bacilli contain metachromatic granules or ___, which are deposits of polyphosphate along w/calcium & other ions.
An inclusion that is a cytoplasmic compartment built fr a water tight protein shell that generates & regulates buoyancy is what?
The bacterial cytoskeleton (A. transports vesicles B. helps determine cell shape C. is organized identical to its eukaryotic counterpart D. centers the nucleoid)
Helps to determine cell shape
The bacterial cell is capable of (A. spatial separation of metabolic processes B. carrying out complex metabolic processes C. subcompartmentalizing biochemical processes D. All)