Lecture Test 1

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starshooter102
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200020
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Lecture Test 1
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2013-02-17 11:57:29
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Cells Tissues Bones
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Lecture test 1
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  1. Anatomy
    • science which deals with the form and structure of all organisms
    • Means "to cut apart"
  2. Physiology
    • study of functions of body and functions of all of its parts
    • (systems, organs, tissues, cells, and cell components)
  3. Gross Anatomy Lab
    • dissection of animals 
    • What can be seen with the naked eye
  4. Physiology Lab
    students usually perform experiments on anesthetized loving animals to understand normal function of body and effects of environmental changes
  5. "ology"
    • means branch of knowledge or science
    • is added to root word referring to system
  6. Cranial
    Toward the skull
  7. Caudal
    Toward the tail
  8. Rostral
    toward the nose once on the skull
  9. Median Plane
    • Also known as the midsagittal plain 
    • divides the body into equal right and left halves
  10. Saggittal plane
    plane parallel to median plane
  11. Transverse plane
    • at right angle to median plane
    • Divides body into cranial and caudal segments
    • "loaf of bread"
  12. Medial
    toward the center of the body
  13. Lateral
    • toward the side (away from middle of body)
    • Ex. ribs are lateral to lungs
  14. Dorsal
    • toward the backbone or vertebral column
    • Ex. kidneys are dorsal to intestines
  15. Ventral
    • toward the abdominal wall - belly
    • Ex. udder is most ventral part of cow
  16. Superficial and external
    • proximity to the skin or surface of body
    • Ex. hair is superficial to all other structures 
  17. Proximal
    • close to given part (usually trunk of body)
    • usually used in reference to protions of an extremity or limb
    • knee is proximal to foot
  18. Distal
    • toward the foot or away from the trunk of the body
    • Ex. hoof is distal to knee
  19. Palmar
    toward the palm of the forelimb
  20. Plantar
    toward the sole of the hindlimb
  21. Prone
    dorsal aspect of the body is uppermost
  22. Supine
    Ventral aspect of the body is uppermost
  23. Cell
    most basic unit that can sustain life
  24. 4 Different types of tissues
    • Epithelial 
    • Connective 
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  25. 6 Vital functions of epithelial tissues
    • 1. protect, cover, line
    • 2. filter biochemical substances 
    • 3. absorb nutrients 
    • 4. provide sensory input
    • 5. Manufacture excretions 
    • 6. Manufacture secretions 
  26. 2 different classification of epithelia
    • Simple - one layer of cells
    • Stratified - Multiple layers of cells
  27. Cell shapes 
    • Squamous - flat
    • Cuboidal - cube
    • Columnar - rectangular 
  28. 8 Types of epithelia
    • Simple squamous
    • Simple Cuboidal
    • Simple Columnar
    • Stratified squamous
    • Stratified Cuboidal 
    • Stratified Columnar
    • Pseudostratified columnar
    • Transitional
  29. Endocrine Glands
    • secretions stay in body 
    • no ducts
    • Ex. Hormones 
  30. Exocrine Glands 
    • secretions that leave the body 
    • Ex. Sweat, urine, milk, mucus
  31. 3 methods of glandular secretions
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  32. Merocrine secretions 
    cell remains intact, protein leaves
  33. Apocrine secretion
    part of the cell breaks off
  34. Holocrine
    Cell ruptures 
  35. 3 distinct components of connective tissue
    • Ground Substance/matrix
    • Extracellular fibers 
    • Cells
  36. Ground substance
    • amorphous, homogeneous material ranges from liquid to gel to solid 
    • found in blood and bones
    • exchange of nutrients and waste, cushions and protects cells
    • Barrier to invading microorganisms 
  37. 3 types of extracellular fibers
    • Collagenous
    • Reticular
    • Elastic
  38. Collagenous fibers
    • structural protein collagen  
    • thick parallel bundles 
    • tremendous strength 
    • found in tendons and ligaments 
  39. Reticular 
    • composed of collagen 
    • thin, delicate, branched
    • form a complete network 
    • found in lymph nodes, spleen, liver
  40. Elastic 
    • composed of elastin
    • complex network 
    • coiled - spring like 
    • Found in lungs, skin, vocal cords, and the walls of the blood vessles
  41. 2 Cell types for connective tissue
    • Fixed
    • Wandering
  42. Fixed connective tissues 
    • Fibroblast 
    • Adipocytes 
    • Reticular 
  43. Fibroblast 
    general name, varies by type of tissue produced
  44. Adipocytes 
    lipids, cushions, fat
  45. Reticular 
    makes reticular fibers
  46. Wandering connective tissues 
    • Mast
    • Leukocytes 
    • Macrophages
  47. Mast cells 
    secrete, responsible for allergic reactions
  48. Leukocytes 
    white blood cells 
  49. Macrophages 
    • "garbage men" 
    • clear damage debris
  50. Classifications of connective tissue 
    • Areolar 
    • Adipose 
    • Reticular 
    • Dense Fibrous 
    • Dense regular 
    • Dense irregular 
    • Elastic 
  51. Classifications of specialized connecting tissue
    • Cartilage 
    • Blood
    • Bone 
  52. 3 types of cartilage 
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic 
    • Fibrocartilage 
  53. Chondro 
    refers to cartilage 
  54. Hyaline cartilage 
    • most common type of cartilage 
    • closely packed collagen fibers 
    • most rigid type of cartilage 
    • articular cartilage (type of cartilage at the end of joints)
    • rings of cartilage 
    • growth plates
  55. Elastic cartilage 
    • numerous branching bundles of elastic fibers
    • very flexable 
    • epiglottis 
    • larynx 
    • pinna (ears)
    • covered by a perichondrium 
  56. Fibrocartilage 
    • thick bundles of collagen fibers 
    • fewer chondrocytes 
    • lacks a perichondrium 
    • capable of withstanding compression 
    • found merged with connective tissue 
  57. Matrix
    • gelatin like substance 
    • composed of proteins and polysaccharides 
    • collagen fibers 
    • infiltrated with calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals
  58. Cartilage is made up of
    • Chondrocytes
    • Lacunae
    • Chondroitin sulfate
    • Perichondrium (not all types)
  59. Bone
    • is a connective tissue 
    • Makes up the structure
  60. Types of bone (2)
    • Cancellous 
    • Compact
  61. Specialized matrix
    organic collagen fibers, calcium, and phosphate
  62. Hydroxyapatite
    calcium
  63. Bone cells
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes 
    • Osteoclasts
  64. Osteoblast
    bone builders
  65. Osteocytes
    surrounded by matrix
  66. Osteoclasts
    capable of destroying and breaking down bone
  67. Haversian system
    light compact system of cylindrical bone
  68. Haversian canals
    composed of blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves
  69. Volkmanns canals
    • channels in bone that run through the matrix
    • Blood vessels pass through
    • nutrient foramen is the opening
  70. Canaliculi
    channels through bone connecting lacunae
  71. Lacuna
    Spaces in the bone
  72. Periosteum
    connective tissue that surrounds bones
  73. Epiphysis
    ends of a long bone
  74. Epiphyseal plate
    • still composed of hyaline cartilage 
    • the growth plate
  75. Articular cartilage
    hyaline cartilage
  76. Diaphysis
    the region between epiphysis
  77. Yellow marrow
    • composed of fat/adapose 
    • found in newborns
  78. Red marrow
    tissue that makes cells that leave the marrow
  79. 5 functions of bone
    • support
    • protection
    • leverage
    • storage
    • blood cell formation
  80. Hematopoiesis
    blood cell formation
  81. Ossification
    mineralization of the matrix
  82. Endochondrial ossification
    • when long bones start as hyaline cartilage
    • Cartilage model > long bones > Diaphysis (primary growth center) > Epiphyses (secondary)
    • Ex. during fetal development
  83. Intramembranous ossification
    • flat bones of the cranium 
    • fibrous tissue membrane covering fetal brain 
    • bone formation occurs directly in the membrane 
    • no cartilage model
  84. Os & osteo
    refers to bones
  85. Bone
    • second hardest substance in the body 
    • living tissue with the ability to repair itself
    • specialized connective tissue composed of matrix, cells, fibers
  86. 4 bone shapes
    • long bones
    • short bones
    • flat bones 
    • irregular
  87. Long bones
    • longer then it is wide
    • tibia
    • femur
    • humerus
  88. short bones
    carpals and tarsals
  89. flat bones
    bones of the skull, mandible, and collar bone
  90. irregular bones
    • Any bone that doesn't fit in the other three categories 
    • bones of the vertebrae

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