Gene Expression

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yourmomhaslice
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200038
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Gene Expression
Updated:
2013-02-19 22:15:15
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exam2 biol102
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lecture eight. This will be on second exam. Gene Expression I
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  1. Gene Expression
    It's the process through which the information encoded in genes is converted into an active product. (usually a protein)  This includes transcription and translation of a gene and in some cases protein activation. ( this is how the gene "expresses" itself. The information on the gene is produced through this process)
  2. It's the process through which the information encoded in genes is
    converted into an active product. (usually a protein)  This includes
    transcription and translation of a gene and in some cases protein activation.
    Gene Expression
  3. Gene
    (A section of DNA that encodes information for building functional RNA) "original copy"

    It carries the instructions for making and maintaining an organism.

    Made of DNA

    Most code for proteins.
  4. (A section of DNA that encodes information for building functional RNA) "original copy"It carries the instructions for making and maintaining an organism.Made of DNA Most code for proteins.
    Gene
  5. Central Dogma
    The long accepted hypothesis that information in cells flows in one direction DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins.
  6. The long accepted hypothesis that information in cells flows in one direction DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins.
    Central Dogma
  7. DNA to RNA
    Transcription
  8. Transcription
    DNA to RNA in central dogma
  9. Translation
    RNA to Protein in central dogma
  10. RNA to Protein in central dogma
    Translation
  11. Genotype
    Sequence of DNA Bases  (all the genes that make up an individual.)
  12. Sequence of DNA Bases  (all the genes that make up an individual.)
    Genotype
  13. Phenotype
    Physical Characteristics determined by proteins. (it's what you see. Eye color / hair color/texture )
  14. Physical Characteristics determined by proteins. (it's what you see. Eye color / hair color/texture )
    Phenotype
  15. Allele
    A particular version of a gene. (specific DNA sequence of a gene)


    • –different
    • alleles usually produce different proteins thus, different phenotypes.
  16. A particular version of a gene. (specific DNA sequence of a gene) –differentalleles usually produce different proteins thus, different phenotypes.
    Allele
  17. Codon
    3 bases in RNA that code for a single amino acid in protein.
  18. 3 bases in RNA that code for a single amino acid in protein.
    Codon
  19. Genetic code redundancy
    Some Amino Acids are coded for by more than one codon.
  20. When some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon
    Genetic Code Redundancy
  21. What do special codons do?
    Start and stop
  22. Can you predict amino acid sequences?
    Yes, if DNA sequence is known then you can predict the RNA and protein sequences.
  23. How do you read RNA polymerase?
    5 to 3 direction
  24. Mutation
    •any permanent change in an organism’s DNA

    –changes genotype

    • –can change phenotype
    • most mutations occur during gene copying.
  25. any permanent change in an organism’s DNA–changes genotype–can change phenotype
    Mutation
  26. Point mutation
    single base change

    Often result from DNA replication errors
  27. single base change

    Often result from DNA replication errors
    Point Mutation
  28. Types of Mutations
    • Silent
    • Missense (replacement)
    • Nonsense
    • Frameshift
  29. Silent
    Missense (replacement)
    Nonsense
    Frameshift
    Types of mutations
  30. Silent Mutation
    Change in nucleotide that does not change amino acid specified by codon.Causes a change in genotype but no change in phenotype.
  31. Change in nucleotide that does not change amino acid specified by codon.Causes a change in genotype but no change in phenotype.
    Silent Mutation
  32. Missense (replacement)
    • "Could be really bad, or have no effect at all"
    • Change in nucleotide that changes amino acids specified by codon. Results in change of primary structure in protein. ( a point mutation)
  33. "Could be really bad, or have no effect at all" Change in nucleotide that changes amino acids specified by codon. Results in change of primary structure in protein. (a point mutation)
    Missense or replacement mutation
  34. Nonsense
    Change in nucleotide that that results in early  stop codon. Causes premature termination.
  35. Change in nucleotide that that results in early  stop codon. Causes premature termination.
    Nonsense
  36. Frameshift
    Addition of deletion of a nucleotide. Reading frame is shifted. "Massive missense" everything after one slip up is wrong.
  37. Addition of deletion of a nucleotide. Reading frame is shifted. "Massive missense" everything after one slip up is wrong.
    Frameshift
  38. review
  39. What led to the ability to manipulate and analyze DNA of organisms in biotechnology?
    The understanding of Central dogma
  40. BIOINFORMATICS
    • •Sequence
    • analysis – predict genes and proteins

    • •Cancer
    • mutation analysis

    • •Comparative
    • genomics – analyze similar genes between organisms

    • •Protein
    • structure prediction

    • •Protein
    • interactions predictions

    • •Gene
    • regulation prediction
  41. •Sequence
    analysis – predict genes and proteins

    •Cancer
    mutation analysis

    •Comparative
    genomics – analyze similar genes between organisms

    •Protein
    structure prediction

    •Protein
    interactions predictions

    •Gene
    regulation prediction
    Bioinformatics
  42. GENETICALLY-MODIFIED ORGANISMS
    Good example :English Bulldogs
  43. Traditional modification
    selective cross breeding for a specific trait (corn, dogs)
  44. selective cross breeding for a specific trait (corn, dogs)
    Traditional Modification
  45. Current modification
    altering specific genes
  46. altering specific genes
    Current Modification
  47. How can plant genes be modified?
    Gene guns. Genes from a different organism can be added directly to plant tissue to be more pest resistant.
  48. Does every individual have unique DNA?
    Yes, except for identical twins.
  49. What are some COMMON MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES?
    •Restriction enzyme digestion

    •Gel electrophoresis

    •Molecular cloning
  50. Describe what repeats mean in this image.
    Repeats are unique to each person. They are copies of the DNA that are broken up and reinserted in different patterns
  51. •Restriction enzyme digestion
    •Gel electrophoresis
    •Molecular cloning
    Common Molecular Techniques
  52. RESTRICTION ENZYME DIGESTION
    Cut DNA at specific sequences (recognition sites)

    –Most sites are palindromes
  53. Cut DNA at specific sequences (recognition sites)

    Most sites are palindromes
    Restriction enzyme digestion
  54. palindromes
    read the same in either direction
  55. read the same in either direction
    Palindrome
  56. GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
    • •Agarose
    • gel forms matrix
    • with pores

    • •DNA
    • moves toward (+) electrode
    • Small molecules move faster so
    • DNA fragments are separated by size

    Visualize DNA with dye
  57. •Agarose
    gel forms matrix
    with pores

    •DNA
    moves toward (+) electrode

    •Small
    molecules move faster so
    DNA fragments are separated by size

    •Visualize
    DNA with dye
    Gel Electrophoresis
  58. MOLECULAR CLONING
    •Ligate (add) gene into plasmid

    • •Plasmid
    • – self replicating DNA with drug
    • resistance gene

    •Add plasmid/insert into host cell
  59. •Ligate
    (add) gene into plasmid

    •Plasmid
    – self replicating DNA with drug
    resistance gene

    •Add
    plasmid/insert into host cell
    Molecular cloning

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