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Language is a socially shared code or system in a community that is used to represent thoughts or concepts based on rules of how to combine the coded symbols.
What are the four major models of disability? Explain each
- Biomedical model: Medical problem
- Function model: Impact on function
- environmental model: The environment impeeds you.
- sociopolitical model: the person decides if they are disabled.
Explain the biomedical model?
- It is connectd to the medical profession
- attempts objectivity
- deviance from the norm, malfunction, pathology
- The problem lies within the individual.
What is the functional and enviromental model?
- They are interactive, so the individual disability interacts with the environment
- Society can cause or exaggerate disabilities
- The solution is not exclusively within the individual.
Describe the sociopolitical model
- Society constructs disabilits so they can also deconstruct it.
- Resists the medical categories and diagnosis.
- Self definition and self determinism: People with the disability must define it and refuse to let others define disability.
What is the key to determining normal, different or disordered?
It is the significance attached to the variations that leads to identification of a child as having a language problem.
What is mental age?
It is the age of the childs mental state. It is believed that language is dependent on cognition. The idea that IQ should equal language.
What are the concerns with mental age?
- We do not know the relationship between cognition and language
- some children can have higher language than cognition
What are two ways to measure cognition through prelinguistic abilities
sensorimotor schema and perceptual abilities
What are a few ways to measure non verbal cognition through order?
- pattern recognition
- spatial organization
- puzzle construction
- mental relation
- mechanical aptitude
What does asha say about cognition (IQ) and language status?
Say not to use cognition to determine language status b/c cannot separate language and cognition.
What aspects of language is IQ related to?
- phonological processing
What is chronological age?
How does it relate to language?
- The age the child has been alive
- If the language performance is lower than chronological age, it is a language disorder
What are the concerns surrounding chronological age?
- cognitive level can be higher than chronological age but language is not higher.
- number of children identified could be very ghigh (should all children be performing at CA?)
Why done we use age-related criterion?
A 1 year delay for a 2 year old is hue but a one year delay for and 8 year old is miniscule.
With norm reference testing you have to have ~ what below the mean to have a language disorder? What are the concerns?
- ~1.25 SD
- WHich cutoff tells us that languae is impaired
- A child in the 15th percentle could have as many or more difficulties as teh child in the 10th percentile
- Reliance on a norm-referenced test
If you define language impairment as a score in the lowest 3% then how many children will be language impaired?
3% of the children
What is meant by the social standard of language or what is the social definition of a language disorder?
Language performance is not meeting societal values such as education and socialization.
Some children appear to communicate fine UNITL
Their system is taxed
What is the dynamic assessment of language disorder?
- language performance does not change as expected with instruction.
- how much change is enough change
What are the risk factors associated with LI?
- Birth factors
- chomosomal syndromes
- known neurological conditions
- known physical conditions
- family history
- birth order
- parents level of education
Define a language impairment
A significant disorder in the process of comprehension and use of written, oral and/or symbol systems as compared to both environmental and norm referencing
Social referencing language impairment is?
others view the language to be disordered
Norm referencing language impairment is?
significant deviation from the mean on the normal curve.
Chronological age referencing for language impairment is?
discrepancy between actual age and language ability
Dynamic assessment language impairment is?
Lack of expected change
Mental age referencing language impairment is
Discrepancy between cognition and language ability.
Children with SELD/SLI are late developing first words. This means?
They have fewer than 50 words and no 2 word combinations at 24 months.
Children with language difficulties appear...
- normal in other areas of devlopment
- appear to have no neurological cause for difficulties
What is the prevalence of SLI?
Is SLI genetically transmitted? Rate?
Yes, if you have a first degree relative with sli your chance of having SLI is four times greater.
With SLI there is an apparent absences of what other clearly identifiable problems?
- Intellectual disability (MR)
- Hearing Impairment
- Acquired language disorder
Outcome for SLI children at age 13 is predicted by?
language abilities at age 2
Children with SLI have difficulty with what?
abstract and figurative language
What is Illusory recovery?
The child is released from services in kindergarten because they have caught up but in first and secong grade they start to fall behind again.
What are the difficulties associated with SLI and learning new words?
- delats in receptive and expressive vocabulary
- word finding difficulty
- naming on demand tasks
- circumlocutions, mazes
- poor fast mapping
- prominent difficulty with verbs
What are the morphosyntactic deficits associated with SLI
- verb morphology such as tense and agreement
- other verb related morphology
- More likely to correctly mark participles than simple past tense
What are the Phonological deficits associated with SLI?
production, perception and phonological awareness.
What are the syntactic deficits associated with SLI?
- comprehension and production of complex syntax
- -long distance dependencies, why questions, relative clauses.
WHat are the pragmatic deficits of SLI?
- communication functions are executed less appropriately or efficiently
- difficulty iwth reference cohesion
- less structurally complex and less cohesive narratives
- difficulty establishing and maintaining peer relationships.
What are the subgroups of SLI?
- Expressive deficits only: hard to measure only expression.
- Expressive and receptive deficits
- Grammatical SLI: 10-20% have it. primary disproportionate deficit in computational grammatical system. deficits specific to syntax. underlying deficit in linguistic knowledge or operations.
- Syntactically impaired children with SLI: relative clause task
SLI theories are organized under what two broad categories? Describe them
Linguistic Accounts: Morphosyntax errors, domain specific, related to the module of the brain that processes morphosyntax, noam chompsky
Processing accounts: Impairment in the brian's ability to process linguistic input, access linguistic knowledge, or both. Underlying impairment in phonological working memory or functional speed of processing.
Children with SLI have problems with psychological processes such as:
- speech perception
- working memory
- slowed reaction times
- executive functions
What is domain general and domain specific?
- (general linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive processing)
- language specific cognitive processing
What is speech perception in relation to SLI?
- Difficulty perceiving tones and speech that is presented rapidly, in brief duration, or with rapidly changing tones.
- Deficient in temporal (time) processing
There is evidence to say that children with SLI have a deficit in the underlying neurophysiology of percetption, but....
the cause and how the problem relates to language impairment is unclear.
Linguistic accounts all believe grammer is....
Processing accounts all believe....
- general processing issure, specific language processing issues.
What is the General account of the processing speed in relation to SLI?
- Children with SlI have cognitive slowing . they differ from the TD peers in overall speech of processing.
- -slower with linguistic and nonlinguistic tasks
Is the processing speed related to severity of SLI?
Working memory and processing speed acount for how much of the varience in language performance scores?
What are the 4 areas of attention children with SLI struggle with?
- selective attention
- dividied attention
- sustained attention
What are the four areas of exectuive functions?
- control of attention
- control of shifting attention
- control of inhibition
Working memeory is better when....
attention is controlled, irrelecant information is suppressed, reduced distraction, focuson task-relevant thoughts, coordination of simultaneous processing and storage.
None of the SLI hypotheses easiyl account for
either the range or the variation of the particular impaired linguistic and non-linguistic functions found across SLI
Anytime you try to describe SLI with specific details,
You will fall short
30 children were found to fully recover preoperative language one year after a left hemispheric excision. These results imply
that language (including grammer) can be imprinted into different areas of the brain and does not have to be isolated in a specific grammatical brain module.
Different languages, acquired through different linguistic enviornment,
can be mapped differently in the brain.
Describe the procedural deficit hypothesis.
- It is not the outward behavior of the neurological impairment that should dictate the disorder, but instead the highly specific neurological impairment that mostly impacts language.
- a substantial number of individuals who have SLI also have abnormal brain structures rooted in the frontal/basal-ganglia circuits that constitute the procedural memory system.
The memory systems of the brian include what?
the procedural and declarative memeory system
The declaritive memory regulates what?
the lexicon, wor-specific knowledge, and irregular/unpredictable information
The procedural memory regulates what?
The rule goverend computations, syntax, morphology and phonology
What has the procdural memory system been directly linked to
- Phonolgical working memory
- temporal prcessing
- syntax that is not lexicalized
- rule goverened morthpohlogy
- lexical/declaritive memory
- workd learing
- motor impairments such as sequencing speech, timing, balance and dynamic mental imagy.
For the procedural deficit hypothesis, the structural and functional imaging indicate what?
deficits in procedural memory.
What is the picture of SELD that 10-15%of 2 year olds fit?
- Absence o f vocabulary spurt
- fail to combine words into two word utterances
- talk very little
- less than 50 words (expressive)Children with a very low vocabulary development (0-8 words) are at even greater ristk
With SLED at three years old. Of the 10-15% _____ continue to show expressive delatys at 3 three. Meaning _____ 2 year olds continue to have problems when three
SELD at 4 years old.
Range from 15-55% continue to show expressive delays at 4 years of acge thus 1.5%-8.5% of all 2 year olds continue to have problems when four.
What happens when language is taxed using narration?
- 57% have persisting expressive language difficulty.
- This is 6% to 9% of 2 yr old children who have language difficulty when four.
With SLED, children who have difficulty with language at 4
usually face long term difficulty
5 year old children seem to plateu in their language growth, but
show a grwoth spurt at 6 and 7
What are risk factors for persisiting language difficulty?
- very low expressive vocabulary at 2
- relatively small verb vocabulary
- reliance on general all purpose verbs
- verb morphology problems
- difficulty with non-word repettion
- dynamic assessment
- narrative assessmetn
What is the prefered term now for ID? used to be?
- Intelectual disability.
- mental retardation
- mental deficiency
- cognitive deficit
- developmental disability.
The only change in the definition of MR is? What is it?
- The name.
- ID is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functiong an din adaptive behavior as espressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before the age of 18
How is intellectual functioning measured? it is for ID?
- Standardiezed norm referenced test
- IQ of 70-75 or less
In the definition of ID what is meant by Adaptive skills?
- Conceptual (language; memory)
- Social (Following rules, self esteem)
- Practical (eating, dressing, work.)
Children with an intellectual disabiliy must perform _____ in at least ____ of the areas of conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills.
- significantly below the mean
What were the levels of retardation before 1992?
NNow the diagnosis for levels of support diendify ____,_____, and _____. Identify level of support and specific types of support for what 4 areas?
- strengths, weaknesses, and areas of need
- intellectual functioning and apative skills
- psychological and emotional
What are the nlevels of support now for intellectual disabilities
What is the leading cause of ID?
What is the prevalence of down syndrome and there IQ
- 1/700-1000 (mom>40-1/12)
- Three copies of chromosome 21
- IQ of 50
- 100% risk of alzheimer's disease
What are general characteristics of individuals with down syndrome?
- Generalized hypotonia
- characteristic facial features
- hyperflexibility of the joints
- heart and respiratory problems
- ear anomalies
- duodenal stenosis
- hearing loss
- vision problems
Describe the pragmatics of a person with down syndrome
- relatively good early and later social interaction
- poor object attention and joint attention to objects
- more gestures than gesture+vocalization
Describe the semantics of a person with downsyndrome?
- good vocabulary comprehension
- poor expressive vocabulary (good but lower then receptive)
- semantic development stronger than morphosyntax
- growth may plateau
Describe the morphosyntax of Down syndrome
- similar to sli profile but more extensive
- better comprehension
- poor expression
- moderate ID may not develop complex syntax
- 5-6 years for onset of word combinations, many never develope beyond early grammatical stages
Describe the phonology and reading of down syndrome
- Can be slightly impaired
- basic level sometimes attainable.
For down syndrome, what is a relative strength and weakness?
- vocab= strength
- syntax= weakness
With Fragile X syndrome what do females show? Individuals typically have ____ and they tend to ____.
- excessive shyness
- larger ears
- tend to put everything in their mouth
For individuals with Fragile X, their comprehension and production are in line with?
WHat are their strengths and weaknesses?
- Strength: imitation, verbal and vocal productions.
Weakness: Use of gestures, delayed onset and development
Describe the phonology, morphosyntax, semantics, pragmatics and literacy of children with Fragile X
- Phonology: similar errors to kids TD, reduced intelligibility
- Morphosyntax: expressive syntax is especially week
- Semantics: receptive skills and vocabulary a relative strength
- Pragmatics: Poor interaction skills
- Literacy: can learn to read and spell.
Describe the motor and behavior characteristics of children with Fragile X
- Motor: gross motor-relative strength, fine motor needs OT evaluation
- Behavior: hyperactive, anxiety, short attention span
Treatment of Fragile X is usually ___ and ____ based.
behavior and functionally
Describe the presence of williams syndrome. The average IQ, and Key characteristics.
- microdeletion of 17+ genes
- average IQ 58 (IQ an language don't match
- visual spatial difficulty
- poor number concept
- very social
- weak motor skill learning
People with william syndrome have stronger ___ than ___
language than cognition
What are some facial characteristics of Williams syndrome
- Small, upturned nose
- long philtrum
- wide mouth
- full lips
- small chin
- puffiness around the eyes
- starburst on iris
What are the comprehension and production language characteristics of an individual with Williams syndrome?
- comprehension: relative strength
- production: relative strength (Although delayed in onset, will reach expected or higher levels of growth in relation to nonverbal cognition.
- Good auditory memory.
Describe the phonology, morphosyntax, semantics, pragmatics of an individual with william syndrome
- phonology: typically ok
- Morphosyntax: Different from SLI, late acquisition of word combinations, slow acquisition of grammatical forms, particular difficulty with irregular morphosyntax possible delay in syntax (5-yrs)
- Semantics: Late acquisition of first words
- Pragmatics: typically okay.
Describe prader-willi syndrome
- loss of functions of genes on chromosome 15
- small hands and feet
- short stature
- almond shaped palpebral fissures
Describe the comprehension and production of prader-willi syndrome
- Comprehension: better than expressive skills but still impaired
- Production: generally below mental-age expections
Describe describe phonology, morphosyntax, semantics, pragmatics, literacy of people with prader willi syndrome
- Phonology: typically delayed and disordered
- morphosyntax: pay close attention to expressive syntax
- delated first word; vocabulary a relative strength
- pragmatics: poor narrative skills, difficulty with topic maintenance, turn taking, appropriate physical distance
- Literacy: reading-both decoding and comprehension
The history of autism goes from emotional disturbance, to _______ to a ______ disorder
- psychiatric disorder
- developmental disorder
Todays terminology for Autism is ____ and the definition is what?
- Autism spectrum disorders
- a group of sever developmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication as well as restriced or repetitive patterns of behaviors or interests.
Which of these terms are used to label autism
- disorder- yes (DSM)
- yes, often a synonym for PDD
- disintegrative (Heller syndrome)- yes. Fairly rare, but considered different
- from autism (DSM)
- no (older category in DSM)
- autism- yes,
- only difference is that IQ is normal
- yes, A
- BROAD DSM-IV category of mental disorders that includes autistic disorder
- not otherwise specified (PSSNOS)- DSM IV category- child exhibits
- characteristics of autism, but does not meet all criteria for a specific
- disorder (autistic, Asperger’s, Rett’s)
- No longer meet the criteria due to developmental changes, but once did.
- disorder- progressive neurological disorder in girl. Must
- be excluded as part of an autism diagnosis.
How is the label of autism changing?
- ¨The major change to the diagnosis of
- autism is the use of the umbrella term of "autism spectrum disorder,"
- which will combine the currently separate diagnoses of autism, Asperger's
- syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
- and childhood disintegrative disorder. Therefore, the individual diagnoses of
- the aforementioned disorders will no longer exist.
- ¨The goal of this, according to the APA,
- is to more accurately and consistently diagnose children as having "autism
- spectrum disorder," a term which is widely used by experts in the field
What is the cause of Autism?
- ¨Do not know the exact cause
- ¤Not a discrete disorder
- ¤Significant variation
- ¤Onset difficult to pinpoint
- ¤Unreliable data
When is autism usually recognized?
Usually around 18 months
- ¤Noticeable difference in social behaviors
- ¨May be able to identify deficits as early
- as 8-12 months
- ¤Decreased eye contact, orienting to name,
- pointing, showing
What are the subtypes of autism?
- Late onset- 20-40%
- At birth (nonregression)
What is the prevalence of Autism?
- Occurs more frequently in males than females
- -4x more common in boys then girls
- 1/70 boys diagnosed with autism
- 1/110 for general population.
Why is there a drastic change in the prevalence of autism. when did it occur
- 1.We are better at identifying autism
- 2.The definition has changed so
- children don’t have to have as many characteristics
- 3.We over identify this population.
What are the two basic hypothesis about the prevalence of autism?
- 1) That the rise in incidence is mostly or completely an artifact of increased awareness and broadening of the definition of autism.
- 2) That the incidence of autism is rising due to an environmental or biological/genetic cause
What did Rutter find about diagnoses of autism?
applying modern criteria to these historical records yields similar rates of diagnoses 30-60 per 10,000
What does taylor believe could be the reasons for an increase?
- more trained diagnosticians
- broadening of diagnostic criteria
- greater willingness by parents and educationalists to accept label
- better recording systems
What is meant that the diagnoses are shifting over to autism?
what was previously diagnosed as language disorder is now being diagnosed as autism, with a corresponding decrease in non-specific language disorders
A ten year increase in maternal age increases the odds of having a child with autism by?
In the world, which county has the highest and lowest rates of autism
- highest- japan
- Lowest is australia
What are three enviornmental considerations for the cause of autism?
- parental age and maternal age
- vaccines (thimerosal)
What is summary of the research findings of vaccines and autism?
- In its eighth and final report, the panel unanimously determined that there was no
- evidence of a causal relationship between either MMR or thimerosal and
- autism, no evidence of vaccine-induced autism in “some small subset” of
- children, and no demonstration of potential biological mechanisms
Despite research evidence, how many americans still believe that vaccines cause autism?
What are the parts of the new criteria for diagnosing autism
- difficulties appear before 3
- child must show six or more behaviors characteristic of the disorder
- difficulties in: social interaction, communication social communication and interaction and behavior (restricted interests and stereotypy and repetitive behaviors)
80% of children with ASD function
the MR range on IQ and adaptive behavior measures (those who score higherhave more favorable outcomes)
Describe the social communication and interaction components of autism
- 1.Reciprocity- does not seek comfort even when ill, hurt, or tired
- •Abnormal social approach
- •Failure of normal back and forth in conversation through reduced sharing of interests, emotions and affect
- •Total lack of initiation of social interaction
- communicative behaviors used for social interaction- poorly integrated verbal
- & nonverbal communication
- in eye contact & body language
- •Deficits in understanding and use of nonverbal communication
- •Total lack of facial expressions or gestures
- appropriate to developmental level and beyond the caregiver
- •Difficulties adjusting behavior to suit different social contexts
- •Difficulties in sharing imaginative play
- •Difficulties making friends
- •Apparent absence of interest in people
All 3 of these must be manifested
Describe the behavior requirements of autism
- flicking or twisting, spinning, head banging, complex whole body movements.
- Includes echolalia.
- adheres to routines, ritualized patterns of verbal/nonverbal behavior,
- excessive resistance to change
- the same route be followed when shopping
- restricted patterns- this is abnormal either in intensity or focus
- only in lining up objects (not really using toys as supposed to), amassing
- facts; attachment to an unusual object (e.g., carrying around a piece of
- or unusual interest in sensory aspects of environment
- to pain/temperature; adverse reaction to specific sounds/textures,
- objects, repetitive feeling of texture of materials,
- Child must demonstrate a qualitative
- impairment of restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped pattern of behavior,
- interests, and activities
- that impactsTWO
- of these behaviors
Describe Nonverbal learning disability and pragmatic language impairment
- stronger verbal IQ than nonverbal IQ. Superficially normal language form, but
- deficits in language use.
- verbose, have poor turn-taking and topic management skills, difficulty with
- nonliteral language and drawing inferences
- NLD and PLI- not going to see a lot
- of agreement in the literature about them. You can attend a conference and
- totally buy in, but need to look at the research.
What are severity levels in terms of autism?
- Severity levels are based on the amount of support needed, due to challenges with social communication and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors.
- For example, they might be level 1, 2 or 3
What is the reason for the change in the autism diagnosis.
- the old way isn't precise enough.
- autism is defined by a common set of behaviors and it should be characterized by a single name according to severity
What is the hallmark characteristic and most predictive characteristic and the next most predicitve characteristic of autism
- social impairment
- marked lack of awareness of teh existence or feeling of others
- persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
What is the triadic ?
- look where adults are looking
- use adults as social reference points
- imitate object use
Define joint attention
- the ability ot use eye contact and pointing for the social purpose of sharing experiences with others.
- coordinating attention to an event or object with another individual.
Define intention reading?
- the understanding of another person's intention toward my intentional state
- understanding communicative intentions seems to happen most readily for young children within the confines of joint attentional frames
Even in an imitation learning setting,
the child is reading the intention- not directly imitating.
What does symbolic communication require
role reversal imitiation.
What are associated problems with Autism?
- Intellectual disabilities
- motor behavior deficits: display odd body postions, poor cordination
- unusual sensory behavior: hyper/hyposensitivity
- Hearing loss- more otitis media
- Seizures- 1/3 develp epilepsy in childhood
- Fragile X
What are the strengths and difficulties of children with autism?
Strengths: short-term memory, discrimination, identification of small differences between stimuli
Difficulties: overly responsive to specific stimuli, under sensitive to specific stimuli, transfer of information across sensory modalities, recongnzing facial expression, understanding how others think and feel
Describe the intentional communication, speech and language of individuals with autism.
- Intentional communication: lack of joint attention, abnormal responses to human faces and voices
- Speech: late onset, significantly slower rate of acquisition, impacted suprasegmentals
- Language: forme is usually equal to mental age, vocabulary is usually equal to mental age, meaning and pragmatics are significanly impaired
What are the 6 theories of autism?
- theory of mind
- relational frame theory
- executive functions theory
- central coherence theory
- extreme male brain theory
- social orienting model
Define the theory of mind?
fundamental impairment in the ability to understand thoughts or intentions of others.
In the case of the marble and basket, individuals with down syndrom respond how? Typically developing kids? Autism kids?
- 12/14 got correct (14% incorrect)
- 23/37 got correct (15% incorrect)
- 4/20 got correct (80% incorrect)
According to the theory of mind, Children with autism fail to develop theory of mind and this leads to what?
social and language deficits
What are the problems with the theory of mind?
- doesnt account for grammatical, phonological and semantic problems
- does not provide adequate explanation for tother deficits such as executive function, or perceptual processing or repetative behaviors
Define the Relational Frame Theory:
Act of framing relationally. Not specific for autism. you have mutual entailment, meaning that you have a trained or derived relationship. It then has a combinatorial entailment, meaning the relationship is inferred. Such as family tree.
What is executive function?
- working memory
- problem solving
- verbal reasoning
- mental felxibility
- monitoring of actions
Define the Executive functions theory
- explicit link to frontal lobe failure in analogy with neuropsychological patients who have suffered damage in the frontal loves and have impaired executive functions.
- The behavior problems addressed by this theory are rigidity and perseveration, being explained by a poverty in the initiation of new nonroutine actions and the tendency to be stuck in a given task set.
The executive functions theory says that the frontal loves are>>>>> and it would not be surprising if....
late matuing and if development is altered in autism.
It has been argued that the development of executive functions allwos for what?
childs theory of mind to develop
it has been argued that there are no specific systems for processing mental states ant that performance on theory of mind tasks can be reduced to?
executive function ability
The capacity to represent mental states is necessary for what?
the development of executive function.
What are the problems with the executive functions theory?
- a lack of consensus as to which aspects of executive function are typical of autism
- executive dysfunction is found in conditions other than autism (limits diagnostic marker ability)
- May not be a universal feature of autism.
Define the central coherence theory
- people with autism often think about things in the smallets parts.
- percieve details better than typically developing people.
What is the extreme male brain theory?
- amygdala is larger in boys (even larger in male with autism
- corpus callosum is smaller in females (even smaller in autism)
- males are significantly faster than females at finding the embedded target figure
- children with autism perform above their mental age on the children;s version of the EFT and with autism are faster on the adult version of the eft
What is the social orienting model.
- failure to spontaneously orient to naturally occuring social stimuli in the enviornment.
- alters the development pathway by depriving them of social stimulation
- sensitivity to social stimulie (predisposition)
- Children with autism do not have the preference.
Anticident, behavior, consequence
mand, tact (labeling) imitation
What is the difference between ABA and discrete trial training?
Level of analysis.
For each, give a quick discription
theory of mind
relational frame theory
executive functions theory
central coherence thoery
social orienting model
- understanding others perspectives
- making inferenial connections
- prefrontal cortex probmels= executive functions difficulty
- not seeing the big picutre
- not born with the social desire
What are the language modes?
- auditory-oral system
- visual graphic system
- visual gestural systems
Thought_____ _____ code _______
code language modality
Narrow view of reading
- word recognition ----> reading
- linguistic comprehension ----> language
Broad or simple view of reading
word recognition ----> reading <----- Linguistic comprehension
- constrained, discrete, finite
What are the two parts of reading?
why do we read?
to comprehend written language
we need to access the written code in order to
use our language comprehension skills
What do we need to comprehend written language?
- language comprehension= language construct
- word identification = reading construct
- language based disorder
- difficulties in singl word decoding
- insuffiencinet phonological processing abilities
- neurobiological in orgin
- difficulties with accurate or fluent word recognition
What is the etiology of dyslexia?
- 23%-65% of children who have a parent with dyselxia have the disorder
- 40% rate among siblings
- between 44 and 75% of the variance is explained by genetic factors and the remaining by enviornmental factors
Describe the phonological theory of dyslexia?
- strong consensus supporting the phonological thoery
- speech language are naturally acquired yet reading must be explicitly taught
- revolutionary idea in the 1980s that awareness and reading are related
the phonological level is the level of
decoding and word recognition
____ is largely missing in children and adults with dyslexia
the prevalence of dyslexia is thought to be of normal distribution, however it is trueely
skewedb/c of way it is tested and the comprehension aspect.
it is believed that most children can do what with appropriate instruction
- phonemic awareness
- comprehension instruction
Even after early, evidenced based instruction is proveded
5-7% remain significantly impaired
Need to provide intervention in what grade?
What is a preventative program?
- accurate identification: dyslexia (decoding difficulty), language comprehension difficulty (language difficulty)
- evidence-based intervention: structured, systematic, explicit, intensive
____ and ____ are key factors and often ____ doesnt take place effectively.
- early identification and prevention
- accurate early id
- evidence-based instruction