Bio osmoregulation, excretion, muscles
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Bio osmoregulation, excretion, muscles
flashcards for bio on excretion, muscles, and osmoregulation
removal of an amino group from an organic compound (protein breakdown)
nitrogen waste formed from two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide
broken down from ammonia in the liver, it is 100, 000 times less toxic
expelled as waste from mammals and adult amphibians
a waste product formed form the breakdown of nucleic acids
insects, land snails, and many reptiles, including birds mainly excrete uric acid
largely insoluble in water
requires more energy to produce then urea but wastes less water
A tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body
the outer layer of the kidney
the area inside of the cortex in the kidney
the hollow area where the kidney joins the ureter
a functional unit of the kidney
a small branch of the renal artery that carries blood to the glomerulus
the high-pressure capillary bed that is the site of filtration in the kidney
a small branch of the renal artery that carries blood away from the glomerulus to the peritubular capillaries
peritubular capillary a member of the network of small blood vessels that surround the tubule of the nephron
the cuplike structure that surrounds the glomerulus
the section of the nephron joining the Bowman's capsule with the loop of Henle
Loop of Henle
the section of the tubule that carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the distal tubule
conducts urine from the loop of Henle to the collecting duct
a tube that carries urine from nephrons to the renal pelvis
the maximum amount of a substance that can be removed across the nephron
the fluid that surrounds the body cells
How does the kidney maintain a pH balance?
the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system maintains the pH balance
by excreting excess H+ ions and restoring HCO3- ions to the blood
filter water from the blood and help maintain water balance
The liver helps...
to eliminate toxic nitrogen groups from the body by deamination
Urine formation depends on three functions:
filtration, reabsorption, and sectretion
the active transport of waste from the blood in the nephron
kidney dysfunction caused by inadequate insulin from islet cells in the pancreas, because of the high concentration of glucose left in the blood water remains in the nephron and is lost with the urine
kidney diseases characterized by inflammation of the nephrons
may lead to irreversible kidney damage and kidney failure
are caused by the precipitation of mineral solutes from the blood
the sharp-sided stones can be lodged in the renal pelvis or may move down the ureter into the bladder and be passed out of the body with urine (OUCH!)
Like a kidney that is properly functioning, a dialysis machine operates on the principles of diffusion and blood pressure in order to restore the proper solute balance.
Unlike a kidney the dialysis machine cannot perform active transport.
pressure-filtering of body fluids
reclaiming valuable solutes
removing the filtrate from the system
Where is glucose reabsorbed in the kidney?
into the blood stream at the proximal convoluted tubule into the capillaries
where is water reabsorbed in the kidney?
in the descending limb if the loop of Henle, the proximal convoluted tubule, and the collecting tubule
What is not filtered glomerulus?
Sodium in the kidney...
is reabsorbed in the descending limb of Henle and it creates a concentration gradient by loop of Henle
active transport is required to move sodium
Are the ascending and descending limbs in the loop of Henle permeable to water?
the ascending limb is impermeable to water but sodium is actively pumped out to produce a low water potential in medulla
the descending limb is permeable to water
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney
inhibit the release of ADH and cause more frequent urination
a hormone which increases blood volume and pressure
If low blood volume and pressure occurs in the kidneys, the kidneys recognize this and...
which tells the
which increases Na+ and H2O reabsorption in the distal tubule
the involuntary muscle of the heart
the involuntary muscle found in the lining of many organs
the voluntary muscle that makes the bones of the skeleton move
a band of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
a pair of skeletal muscles that are arranged in pairs and that work against each other to make a joint move
the muscle that must contract to bend a joint
the muscle that must contract to straighten a joint
the delicate sheath that surrounds muscle fibres
a thread of contractile proteins found within muscle fibres
Two kinds of myofilaments are....
actin and myosin
a compound in muscle cells that releases a phosphate to ADP and helps regenerate ATP supplies in muscle cells
increased muscle contraction produced by the combination of stimuli
the state of constant muscle contraction caused by sustained nerve impulses
What are the fast and slow twitch muscle fibres?
The energy for muscle contraction is provided by what?
having that same solute concentration as another solution
animals whose body fluids are isotonic with their surroundings and don't regulate their osmolarity
most marine invertebrates(no backbone) are osmoconformers
animals that actively adjust their internal water balance to maintain osmotic pressure
most marine vertebrates and some invertebrates are osmoregulators
A condition in which the total amount of solutes (salt) in a solution is greater than that of another solution
Osmoregulators who live in a hyperosmotic environment have less salt then the environment does
a condition in which the total amount of solutes (salt) in a solution is lower than that of another solution
osmoregulators who live in hypoosmotic environments have more salt than the environment