Science Vocabulary.txt

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Science Vocabulary.txt
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  1. Science Vocabulary
  2. Action Research
    Refers to research projects in which classroom teachers explore some area of their teaching or some aspect of the students' learning with the goal of improving their own or a colleague 's teaching. Also called teacher research or classroom research.
  3. Alternative Conception
    An idea that is not scientifically accurate but represents a step toward full understanding of a concept.
  4. Angiosperm [AN-jee-uh-spurm]
    A seed plant; one that produces flowers that eventually form fruits with seeds
  5. Animalia [an-uh-MEY-lee-uh]
    The scientific name for the animal kingdom. It is commonly divided into two broad groups: animals with backbones and animals without backbones.
  6. Aphelion [uh-FEE-lee-uhn]
    The point in a planet's orbit when it is furthest from the sun.
  7. Assessment (science)
    A process of collecting information that is used to determine the quality and character of an individual or group performance in a science learning experience.
  8. Assistive Technology
    Devices or services that promote greater independence for people with disabilities by enabling them to perform tasks that were formerly difficult or impossible.
  9. Asteroid
    A tiny chunk of planet-like material that moves around the sun. Between Mars and Jupiter, there is a belt of several thousand asteroids of different sizes.
  10. Atom
    The smallest part of an element that retains the properties of that element. The are ninety-two different kinds of atoms found naturally on earth. The atoms of each element are exactly the same as one another and different from those of any other element.
  11. Authentic Assessment
    A process of judging how well students execute a task as part of solving a problem in a larger context. Often the execution of the task involves a type of student performance. Hence, this type of assessment is also called performance assessment.
  12. Benchmarks for Science Literacy
    A document published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science that provides guidelines for science, technology and mathematics education.
  13. Benchmarks is part of a larger science education reform movement called Project 2061, named for the year of the next return of Halley's Comet to Earth's orbit. Benchmark addresses what students should know and be able to do in science, mathematics, and technology by the end of grades 2, 5, 8, and 12.
  14. Big Idea
    An overarching concept that is the organizing principle behind a number of discrete scientific facts.
  15. Blog
    An online journal (short for "weblog"); in education, blogs are personal journals in which students and teachers post their thoughts and observations and others can respond.
  16. Buoyancy
    The lifting force that water exerts on objects. All objects appear to be lighter in water because of the buoyancy of water.
  17. Carbon-14 Dating
    The process of determining the amount of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope, carbon-14, found in old carbon-bearing materials.
  18. When compared with the amount of carbon-14 naturally occurring in the atmosphere, the approximate age of the material is determined. Based on fixed rates of radioactive decay. Accurate to 60,000 years.
  19. Chemical Change
    A change in the chemical properties of a substance, that is, in the composition of the substance and the way it behaves with other substances; also called a chemical reaction.
  20. Chlorophyll
    The substance in leaves that allows the chemical reaction of photosynthesis to take place and that gives leaves their green color
  21. Circuit (electric)
    A pathway for an electric current. A circuit requires some source of electrical power, such as a battery or generator, and a material through which electronics can travel, such as copper wire.
  22. In elementary school science, circuits usually include some simple appliance that uses electricity, like a light bulb or a bell.
  23. Circulatory System
    The system that maintains a continuous flow of blood around the body. The main parts of this system are the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  24. Capillary
    • • Pertaining to or occurring as if in a
    • tube of fine bore
    • • resembling a strand of hair, hairlike
  25. Classifying
    Sorting objects or ideas into groups on the basis of similar properties
  26. Classroom Research
    Refers to research projects in which classroom teachers explore some area of their teaching or some aspect of the students' learning with the goal of improving their own or a colleague 's teaching.
  27. Also called teacher research or action research.
  28. Climate
    The average pattern of weather for a particular region, measured over a long period of time
  29. Comparing and Contrasting
    Discovering similarities and differences among objects or events
  30. Compound
    A combination of two or more elements in a definite proportion. For example, water is H2O -- two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen.
  31. Concept Map
    A diagram for developing an understanding of relationships between ideas.
  32. A concept map consists of circles or boxes that are called cells and contain an idea, a selected term, or a question. The cells are linked with labeled lines that explains relationships.
  33. Constant
    A experimental condition that remains the same throughout a scientific investigation.
  34. Constructivism
    A family of theories about knowledge and learning whose tenet is that all knowledge is constructed by synthesizing new ideas with what we have previously come to know.
  35. This means that knowledge is not passively received. Rather, knowledge is actively built up by the learner as he or she experiences the world.
  36. Cooperative Learning
    An instructional approach in which students work together in groups to accomplish shared learning goals.
  37. Cooperative Learning Group
    An arrangement in which a group of students, usually of mixed ability, gender, and ethnicity, work toward the common goal of promoting each other's and the group's success.
  38. Cotyledon [kot-l-EED-n]
    The part of the seed that has food stored in it for the tiny plant. Also called the seed leaf.
  39. Current (electric)
    A flow or motion of electrons. Electric currents in wires are caused by electrons moving along the wire.
  40. Curriculum
    A plan of studies that includes the way in which the instructional content is organized and presented at each grade level.
  41. See also Formal science curriculum; Informal science curriculum.
  42. Density
    Mathematically defined as the mass of an object divided by its volume (expressed numerically in grams per cubic centimeter).
  43. Roughly, density can be conceived of as how closely packed together the particles of an object are or as the relative number of particles that can fit into a given amount of space.
  44. Design Challenge
    In design technology, a specific problem that students are asked to solve by designing and constructing a product or an optimal solution.
  45. Designing an Investigation
    Determining a reasonable procedure that could be followed to test out an idea.
  46. Includes listing the materials needed, writing out the procedure to be followed, and identifying which variables will be kept the same and which will be changed.
  47. Design Technology
    The technological counterpart to the science-as-inquiry process.
  48. For students, the design process typically involves solving a problem by constructing a product that meets a set of established criteria, called specifications.
  49. Dialogue Poem
    This is a poem written in two or more voices that represent multiple perspectives on a topic or a concept.
  50. May be used to assess understanding of a science concept.
  51. Dicot
    Seed-producing plant with two seed leaves, or cotyledons. Dicots include most flowers, vegetable shrubs, bean plants, and flowering trees.
  52. Differentiating Instruction
    Adapting instructional techniques to suit the needs of specific children or groups of children in a classroom.
  53. Digestive System
    The body system that breaks down food into a form that can be absorbed and used by the body.
  54. Digital Divide
    The gap between those with easy access to digital technologies and those without.
  55. Discovery Learning
    A phrase popularized by learning theorist Jerome Bruner, who suggested that at any stage of cognitive development, teaching should proceed in a way that allows children to discover ideas for themselves.
  56. Dissolve
    When solid particles (such as salt) are broken down into invisible particles when placed in a solvent such as water.
  57. The solid particles seem to disappear because they are present in molecular or ionic form.
  58. Ecosystem
    A natural space in which all the living things (biotic factors) function together with all of no living things (abiotic factors) in a specific environment.
  59. Electric Current
    A flow or motion of electrons. Electric currents in wires are caused by electrons moving along the wire.
  60. Electricity
    A form of energy produced by a flow of electrons.
  61. Electron
    A negatively charged particle found in the atoms of all elements.
  62. Electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom in different orbitals or "shells"; each shell represents a distinct energy level. Each electron is thought to be a particle of negative electricity.
  63. Electron Cloud
    A term for the general area occupied by each "shell" or energy level where electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.
  64. The metaphor of a "cloud" emphasizes the fact that we cannot know exactly where an electron is at a particular time; we just know that it is somewhere within that general area.
  65. Electronic Portfolio
    A portfolio of student work saved in digital form
  66. Element
    A substance made up of only one type of material.
  67. The simplest form of matter, elements are the building blocks of all other substances. There are ninety-two naturally occurring elements in the universe, and about fifteen others that have been produced by scientists in laboratories. Iron, nickel, gold, silver, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, carbon, and mercury are all elements.
  68. Ellipse
    An oval shape with no center but with two points of reference called foci.
  69. Planets travel on elliptical orbits around the sun, which is located at one of the foci of the orbits.
  70. Emerging Relevance
    A perception by students that questions or ideas arising from an investigation have personal significance to them.
  71. The key part of this concept is that certain matters become relevant to students as they engage in learning activities. By helping them explore these emerging questions and ideas, teachers can help students construct their own meaning.
  72. Energy
    The ability to do work.
  73. Evaluation
    The process of examining all the data gathered from various types of assessments to judge a student's or a group's achievement in a learning area.
  74. Evidence
    In science, evidence refers to the total amount of information that is used to demonstrate or determine the truth of an assertion, such as a fact or theory.
  75. Fair Test
    An investigation in which all the experimental conditions remain the same (constant) except for the one being tested (the variable).
  76. Family Science Night
    A community-involvement activity in which students bring a significant adult or adults to the school to participate in inquiry based science activities, typically set up at stations in a large classroom or in the school cafeteria.
  77. Faults
    Large cracks or breaks in the earth's crustal plate.
  78. Earth quakes are most common in areas where there are major faults.
  79. Foci [FOH-sahy]
    A plural of focus
  80. Focus
    One of two points (foci) used to construct an ellipse.
  81. Focus Question
    A question that clearly specifies the problem or issue to be resolved. Often used to create a concept map.
  82. Force
    A physical agency (such as a push or a pull) that tends to cause a change in the position or motion of an object.
  83. Formal Science Curriculum
    The explicit statement by a school or a school district of science topics and methodologies to be implemented at each grade level.
  84. Formative Assessment
    Assessment that gauges students' understanding of a particular topic in a unit in order to judge their progress and adjust the rest of the instruction accordingly
  85. Fossil Fuels
    Fuels such as oil, gas, and coal that derive from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago.
  86. Framework
    A document, usually prepared at state level, at offers guiding principles for elementary and secondary curricula.
  87. In science, recent state frameworks have usually been aligned with the content standards of the National Science Education Standards. These state frameworks tend to dictate science content, specifying the topics that should be addressed at each grade level.
  88. Fruit
    A ripened ovary of a seed plant; a container for the plant's seeds.
  89. Fruits are ripened ovaries containing sufficient nutrients for the new embryo and attractive to potential dispensers, often through deposited feces.
  90. Fungi
    A kingdom of living things containing tiny plantlike organisms.
  91. Fungi do not have chlorophyll and cannot make their own food. Fungi includes molds, mildews, yeast, and mushrooms.
  92. Gas
    A state of matter that has no definite shape or size.
  93. When a gas is poured into a container, it spreads out until it has the same size of the container and takes the same shape as the container.
  94. Gender Equity
    In science education, this refers to the processes of teaching females and males in ways that enhance their potential for learning science.
  95. Germination
    The process by which a seed sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.
  96. Graduated Cylinder
    A device used for measuring liquid volume. In essence, it is a scientific measuring cup--a glass or plastic cylinder calibrated in milliliter s.
  97. Gravitation
    The attraction of any two objects that have mass.
  98. According to the law of gravitation, every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that increases when the masses of the objects increase and decreases as the objects move farther away from each other.
  99. Green Science
    The branch of environmental studies that includes the study of alternative and renewable energy, food webs, conservation, resource distribution, and the changes in world climate.
  100. Greenhouse Gases
    Gases that reduce the amount of heat energy (infrared radiation) that is radiated back toward space when the sun's energy enters the atmosphere and strikes the Earth.
  101. These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally, but they may also be produced by industrial processes. Excess greenhouse gases in the air can cause average temperatures to climb over time.
  102. High Tide
    High level of ocean waters, when the waters reach the farthest onto land.
  103. On the side of the earth facing the moon, high tide occurs because the waters bulge out from the moon's gravitational pull. At the same time, on the opposite side of the earth, there is also a high tide because the moon's gravitational force has pulled the solid earth as well, leaving the waters bulging out on that side too.
  104. Hypothesis
    An inference or guess that is tested through a planned investigation.
  105. Igneous Rock [IG-nee-uhs]
    Rock formed above or below the earth's surface when magma (below) or lava (above) cools and hardens
  106. Igneous--produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma.
  107. Inclusion Model
    The practice of placing students with disabilities in regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible.
  108. Inertia
    The tendency of a body to continue with the same motion at the same speed or to remain at rest.
  109. Inference
    Reasonable explanation that we construct on the basis of our observations.
  110. Inferences sometimes lead us to set up further investigations.
  111. Informal Science Curriculum
    Science learning experiences that go beyond the formal science curriculum of the school or school district to include other topics and methodologies that connect to the students' daily life outside the school.
  112. The topics might arise, for example, from spontaneous natural occurrences, local news events, or materials the students bring from home.
  113. Inquiry
    The type of exploration that lies at the heart of scientific activity.
  114. According to the National Science Education Standards, inquiry is "a multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; planning investigations; using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data; posing answers, explanations, and predictions; and communicating the results" (National Research Council, 1996).
  115. Inquiry Skills
    Abilities that help people gain information about nature and natural phenomena; these include skills such as observing, inferring, classifying, recording data, predicting, and planning investigations.
  116. Inquiry (Process) skills are employed on a planned and regular basis by those engaged in scientific activity.
  117. Iterative Process
    The act of repeating a process of design where the final result of one process or iteration is the starting point for the next iteration until an optimized solution or target goal is reached.
  118. Interview For Assessment
  119. Invertebrate
    An animal without a backbone. Invertebrates are the most numerous of all animals.
  120. Journal
  121. Kinetic Energy
    The energy of motion; that is, that an object has because it is moving.
  122. Kingdom
    The broadest division of classification of living things. There are five kingdoms of living organisms: Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi, and Monera.
  123. Law Of Conservation Of Matter And Energy
    The scientific law asserting that matter and energy can be changed into each other but cannot be created or destroyed.
  124. Learning Cycle
    An approach to teaching science that typically includes five phases of science teaching and learning; engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluate.
  125. Learning Progression
    In science, the sequence of ever-deepening concepts that result in the understanding of a core scientific idea that is basic to explaining how the natural world works.
  126. They are based on research and how people learn.
  127. Lesson
    In science instruction, the process of engaging students in a meaningful science experience and in reflections on the experience.
  128. Light
    A form of energy radiated by the sun and stars.
  129. Light is only the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which also includes many types of electromagnetic waves that we cannot see.
  130. Liquid
    A state of matter with a definite size but no definite shape. A liquid takes the shape of its container.
  131. Low Tide
    Low level of ocean waters that occurs because, as waters bulge on two sides of the earth, the remaining waters flatten.
  132. Magnetism
    A force produced when an object exerts, an attraction for materials made of certain metals, such as iron, steel, cobalt, and nickel.
  133. Mass
    The amount of matter that is in an object, typically measured in grams and kilograms.
  134. Matter
    Anything that has mass and takes up space.
  135. Meaningful Science Experiment
    An activity that engages students in the key processes of science, such as observing and predicting, inferring and hypothesizing, manipulating objects, investigating, and imagining; that relates to the students' everyday lived experiences; and that stimulates the students to reflect on what they are exploring and come up with their own ideas.
  136. Measuring
    Determining distance, volume, mass, or time by using instruments that indicate these properties (such as centimeter sticks, graduated cylinders, scales, or stopwatches).
  137. Mediator
    A teaching role in which the teacher helps students to learn by reflecting their own ideas back to them and guiding them in sorting out he inconsistencies.
  138. As a mediator, the teacher helps students delve deeply into their thoughts and expand their own thinking about an idea.
  139. Meniscus
    Refers to the curve at the upper surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container, such as a graduated cylinder.
  140. The bottom of the curve in a concave meniscus (liquid surface caves downward) is where the liquid volume measurement is taken.
  141. Metacognition
    Self-monitoring, with the capacity to "know what you know" and what you do not yet understand.
  142. Metamorphic Rock
    Rock transformed from igneous and sedimentary rocks that are pushed below the surface (by shifts in the earth's crust or by lava flows) and subjected to severe pressure and heat.
  143. Mixture
    Any combinations of elements, compounds or other mixtures.
  144. Because the are only ninety-two naturally occurring elements, most matter consists of either compounds or mixtures.
  145. Model
    A representation of a system or object: for example, a physical structure that imitates a smaller or larger structure, a mental construct that represents an object or process, or a computer program that parallel the workings of a larger system.
  146. Molecule
    The smallest part of a compound that has the properties of that compound. Molecules are made up of atoms.
  147. Monera
    A kingdom of living things consisting of bacteria, tiny organisms that do not have chlorophyll and cannot make their own food.
  148. All bacteria are made up of only one cell. Blue-green algae are also part of the Monera kingdom.
  149. Monocotyledon Plant
    A type of seed-producing plant with just one cotyledon or seed leaf--for example, lilies, tulips, irises, onions, and grasses and grains. Also called monocot.
  150. Nanoscale Science
    Inquiry-based activities designed to help middle and high school students explore the unique properties and behaviors of materials on the scale of an atom or molecule.
  151. Nanotechnology
    The science and technology of building materials and devices from single atoms and molecules.
  152. NETS-S and NETS-T
    National Educational Technology Standards For Students (Teachers)
  153. A set of standards prepared by the International Society for Technology in Education and published in a series of books and brochures. These standards cover what students should know and be able to do with technology. A related set of standards (NETS-T) describes how teachers should prepare to teach with technology.
  154. National Science Education Standards
    A set of standards prepared by the National Research Council and published in book form in 1996.
  155. It offers guidelines for teachers, teachers educators, curriculum developers, and school districts for establishing science education programs. The overall theme is that acquiring scientific knowledge, understanding and abilities should be a central aspect of education.
  156. National Standards
    Guidelines written by national agencies and members of professional organizations for establishing comprehensive programs of study.
  157. Such guidelines have been published for precollege education in the most common discipline areas, including science, mathematics, technology, language arts, and social studies.
  158. Nervous System
    The body's internal communications network, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
  159. Neutron
    A particle with no electrical charge found in the nucleus of an atom.
  160. Notebook
  161. Observation
    Perception of an object or an event, using as many sense as possible.
  162. Open-ended Questions
    Questions that lead to multiple answers.
  163. They are especially important because they help students think critically about their scientific experiences.
  164. Orbit
    The path of one heavenly body as it travels around another heavenly body.
  165. Parallel Circuit
    An electric circuit in which each device has a separate pathway, it's own separate branch of the circuit.
  166. Performance Assessment
  167. Perihelion
    The point in a planet's orbit when it is closet to the sun.
  168. Phases Of The Moon
    The various aspects of the moon as seen from Earth, such as the full moon and new moon.
  169. These phases reflect changes in the amount of the lighted surface of the moon that we can see from earth.
  170. Photosynthesis
    The process by which green plants use carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil, in the presence of sunlight, to manufacture molecules of glucose.
  171. Glucose is a simple sugar that cells of the plant then use to make energy for the plant to carry on its functions, including growth.
  172. Physical Change
    Change in the physical properties of a substance, that is, in the properties we can readily observe with our sense.
  173. Physical Science
    The branch of elementary school science that includes the exploration of no living materials, their interactions, and interactions between matter and energy.
  174. Planets
    Principal members of the solar system that move around the sun.
  175. In order or their distance from the sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Planets shine by reflecting the light of the sun or other stars.
  176. Plantae [PLAN-tee]
    The kingdom of all land plants, that is, multicelled organisms that make all of their food through photosynthesis.
  177. Portfolio
    A selection of a student's work during a semester or a unit.
  178. The most important feature of a portfolio is that the student selects its contents and reflects on his or her reasons for this selection.
  179. Potential Energy
    The energy an object has because of its position; stored-up energy.
  180. When potential energy is set free, it is changed into kinetic energy.
  181. Predicting
    Estimating the outcome of an event on the basis of observations and, usually, prior knowledge of similar events.
  182. Probe
    An electric sensor, connected to a computer or personal digital assistant, that allows the user to record real-time data about the environment.
  183. Process Skills
    Abilities that help people gain information about nature and natural phenomena; these include skills such as observing, inferring, classifying, recording data, predicting, and planning investigations.
  184. Process (inquiry) skills are employed on a planned and regular basis by those engaged in scientific activity.
  185. Professional Development
    The process by which teachers strive to improve their work as teachers in order to grow in their profession.
  186. It is generally based on inquiry into their own teaching practices, active engagement in their own research, and teacher workshops and courses.
  187. Property Words
    The basic words we use to describe the material world, referring to common properties of objects such as size, shape, color, odor, texture, taste, composition, and hardness.
  188. Protista
    A kingdom of simple organisms, consisting mainly of algae, except for blue-green algae. Other protists are protozoans like the amoeba, paramecium, and euglena.
  189. Proton
    A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
  190. Questions
    • Focus question
    • Open-ended question
  191. Focus Question-- a question that clearly specifies the problem or issue to be resolved. Often used to build a concept map.
  192. Open-Ended Question--questions that lead to multiple answers. They are especially important because they help students think critically about their scientific experiences.
  193. Rain Garden
    A collection of plants in a depressed area of a sloping landscape that allows rainwater to be absorbed, preventing excess runoff from urban roads.
  194. It often acts as a filter by trapping undesirable pollutant particles carried by rainwater.
  195. Recording Data
    Writing down (in words, pictures, graphs, or numbers) the results of observations of an object or an event.
  196. Reflective Teacher
    A teacher who thinks deeply about his or her practices, the needs and identities of the students, and what the teaching is intended to accomplish.
  197. Respiration
    The metabolic process by which cells take in the oxygen they need and give back carbon dioxide as a waste product.
  198. Respiratory System
    The system that supplies the oxygen needed by body cells and carries off their carbon dioxide waste.
  199. Rubric
    A set of criteria used to determine the scoring value of an assessment task.
  200. Satellite
    A natural satellite is any heavenly body that travels around an other heavenly body. The moon is a satellite of the earth, and the earth--moon system is a satellite of sun.
  201. Scaffolding
    Providing temporary support or guidance to a learner who needs help to reach understanding of a concept or process.
  202. The scaffold can take such forms as key questions, important facts, a structure to frame the problem, and modeling or demonstration by teacher.
  203. Science Assessment
    A process of collecting information that is used to determine the quality and character of an individual or group performance in a science learning experience.
  204. Science Autobiography
    A personal description of one's experience with science, in or out of school.
  205. Science Circus
    A science activity that consists of several stations at which the visitors are asked to perform certain tasks and record their results.
  206. Science Conversation
    • (Or science interview)
    • A direct discussion between a teacher and van individual student about a science learning experience.
  207. This activity allows teachers to ask students to elaborate on their ideas--a good way to determine the depth of a student's understanding. Trough such conversations, teachers gain important clues about how students construct personal meaning, and these clues then influence future instruction.
  208. Through such conversations, teachers gain important clues about how students construct personal meanings, and these clues then influence future instruction.
  209. Science Journal
    A notebook in which students record their observations, reflections, questions, predictions, and conclusions during a science investigation.
  210. Science Notebook
    A notebook in which students record their observations, reflections, questions, predictions, and conclusions during a science investigation.
  211. Science PCK
    Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge
  212. Refers to science content knowledge that is transformed by the teacher into a format that makes it understandable to students.
  213. Science Portfolio
    A selection of a student's work during a semester or a unit.
  214. The work in the portfolio might include one or more reports, drawings, poems, or other products representing what the student has learned in science other a defined period of time. The most important feature of a portfolio is that the student selects its contents and reflects on his or her reasons for this selection.
  215. Scientific Law
    A statement about principles or patterns in nature, indicating relationships between or song facts.
  216. Laws have endured over time and have consistently been tested, but, like theories, they are not absolutely "proved."
  217. Scientific Literacy
    The ability to use the processes of science to make important life decisions; in particular, the ability to explore a problem through careful reasoning.
  218. Scientific Method
    The typical process that scientists use in the course of studying natural phenomena, including steps such as observation, forming a hypothesis, and experimentation to test the hypothesis, and experimentation to test the hypothesis.
  219. Scientific Theory
    A comprehensives explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a considerable body of evidence--in other words, the best explanation we currently have for why something is so.
  220. Sedimentary Rock
    Rock formed when sediments, eroded from rocks on the earth's surface, are deposited by rivers into coastal basins or large lakes.
  221. These sediments are compacted and become rock through a process called lithification.
  222. Lithification [lith-uh-fi-KEY-shun]
    --the process or processes by which unconsolidated materials are converted into coherent solid rock, as by compaction or or cementation.
  223. Seed Plant
    A plant one that produces flowers that eventually form fruits with seeds
  224. Angiosperm
  225. Series Circuit
    An electric current in which the current has only a single pathway through the entire circuit.
  226. Simulation
    A computer program, virtual construction, or other procedure that imitates a real-world experience.
  227. Social Networking Site
    A website that allows individuals to interact within one another via text postings in real time.
  228. It may be used by science teachers to generate discussions about curriculum topics and newsworthy items for students' comments and reflections.
  229. Solar System
    The sun and the group of heavenly bodies that move around it. The sun is the only member of our solar system that is a star.
  230. Solid
    A state of matter with a definite size and shape.
  231. Spectrum
    The band of colors seen when a avid light is separated into its component wavelengths, as in a rainbow.
  232. The electromagnetic spectrum also includes other forms of electromagnetic radiation that we cannot see, such as ultraviolet light, infrared light, radio waves, gamma rays, and cosmic rays.
  233. Spiraling Of Curriculum
    Engaging students in the same topic of study at different grade levels, so that the topic is explored at greater depth in later grades.
  234. Star
    A heavenly body that produces its own light.
  235. There are billions of stars in the universe, including our sun. About 3,000 stars are visible with the naked eye.
  236. States Of Matter
    The basic forms in which matter is found: solid, liquid, and gas (and a state that is rare on earth, plasma)
  237. Station Assessment
    An assessment activity in which work stations are set up around the room to create a genuine context for the students to perform tasks.
  238. The students typically use an answer sheet to respond to the questions at each station. Each work station asses a deferent aspect if the science unit.
  239. STEM Initiative
    A curriculum transformation project that strives to integrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics by promoting the use of inquiry and design in problem-solving activities and stressing the importance of these subjects for twenty-first century careers.
  240. Summarize Assessment
    Assessment at the end of a unit or course, used to document students' achievement or to evaluate the end product of a student's learning activity.
  241. Suspension
    A mixture in which solid particles do not dissolve, but literally are suspended in a liquid.
  242. Taxonomy
    An entire classification system, such as the scientific classification of all living things into categories ranging from kingdom to species.
  243. Teacher Research
    Refers to research projects in which classroom teachers explore some area of their teaching or some aspect of the students' learning with the goal of improving their own or a colleague 's teaching. Also called action research or classroom research.
  244. Theory
    A comprehensives explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a considerable body of evidence--in other words, the best explanation we currently have for why something is so.
  245. High and Low Tide
  246. High level of ocean waters, when the waters reach the farthest onto land. On the side of the earth facing the moon, high tide occurs because the waters bulge out from the moon's gravitational pull. At the same time, on the opposite side of the earth, there is also a high tide because the moon's gravitational force has pulled the solid earth as well, leaving the waters bulging out on that side too.
  247. Low level of ocean waters that occurs because, as waters bulge on two sides of the earth, the remaining waters flatten.
  248. Unit Of Study
    A segment of the curriculum that includes several lessons designed around a central them or topic.
  249. Universal Design
    The attempt to design all products and environments, including learning environments, to be as accessible as possible by all people, regardless of age, ability, or situation.
  250. Variable
    The property or condition of a scientific investigation that will change when experimental conditions are changed.
  251. Vegetable
    An edible plant part that is the root, stem, leaf, or flower of the plant.
  252. Vertebrate
    An animal with a backbone. There are five vertebrate groups: fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals.
  253. Volume
    The amount of space an object takes up.
  254. Liquid volume is typically measured in milliliters and liters; solid volume, in cubic centimeter and cubic meters. When we refer to the size of an object, we usually mean its volume.
  255. Wait Time
    The time that elapses between the moment a teacher asks a question and the moment the teacher selects a student to respond, offers a clue, rephrases the question, or otherwise moves ahead with the lesson.
  256. Weather
    The short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a particular place
  257. Weathering
    The warming away of rocks on the earth by the action of the sun, air, and water.
  258. Web 2.0
    Types if Internet services that have rich, ,interactive user interfaces and that encourage information sharing and collaboration.
  259. Webinar
    A Web-based seminar that usually includes both audio and video. Webinars may be oneway video conferences, but Web 2.0 software allows them to be interactive.
  260. Weight
    The gravitational pull that the earth has on and object.
  261. The weight of an object increases when mass increases; but weight in scientific terms is not the same as mass, because weight is dependent on the gravitational pull that is exerted on the object.
  262. Wiki
    An outline site that allows various users to add or modify the content.
  263. Work
    The act of applying a force to move an object through a distance.
  264. Year
    The time needed for a planet to make one complete turn or revelation about the sun.

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