CellMol LT2 3.4

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CellMol LT2 3.4
2013-02-13 01:50:55
ATP synthesis oxidative phosphorylation

ATP synthesis
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  1. ATP formation driven by high energy electrons removed from substrate oxidation paths such as TCA cycle, with energy released for ATP formation by passage of the electrons through electron- transport chain in the mitochondria
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  2. direct synthesis of ATP through the transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
    substrate- level phosphorylation
  3. Where does substrate-level phosphorylation occur?
    • Glycololysis
    • Krebs cycle
  4. mitochondria and chloroplast arose from symbiotic eukaryote that took residence within a primitive host cell
    endosymbiont theory
  5. folding increases
    Surface area
  6. Where do Glyscolysis, Aerobic respiration, TCA cycle and Electron Transport chain occur?
    • 1. cytoplasm
    • 2. mitochondria
    • 3. matrix
    • 4. cristae
  7. What are the substrates in the substrate-level phosphorylation?
    • G: glucose
    • TCA: acetyl CoA, CO2
  8. Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
    Mitochondria through aerobic respiration
  9. Do all eukaryotes have mitochondria?
  10. When pyruvate undergoes an anaerobic reaction, what occurs?
    NO ATP
  11. What are the products of G?
    • 2 NADH
    • 4 ATP
    • 2 pyruvate
  12. How many C atoms does pyuvate have?
  13. Without oxygen?
  14. Where does ATP synthase occur?
  15. What happens when acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate react with each other?
    citric acid
  16. What are the substrates and products for the prep step?
    • S: 2 pyruvate(3C)
    • 2 acetyl CoA(2C)
    • 2 CO2(1C)
    • 2 NADH
  17. Are any substrate molecules reduced/ oxidized during the TCA cycle?
    • reduced!
    • ┬áNAD+ --> NADH
    • FADH --> FABH2
  18. When are all the CO2 produced?
    • 2- prep step
    • 4- krebs cycle
  19. What are the products for the TCA cycle?
    2(3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1GTP--> 1 ATP)

    high energy electron carriers: NADH and FADH2
  20. Are any substrate molecules reduced/ oxidized during the electron transport chain?
    • oxidized!
    • NADH--> NAD+ + H
    • FADH2--> FADH + H
  21. What runs ATP synthesis?
    proton gradient chain/ force
  22. an electrochemical gradient built across energy transducing membranes following translocation of protons during electron transport
    proton-motive force
  23. What is the voltage gradient outside the membrane?
    • pH acidic
    • voltage +
  24. When does cellular respiration occur?
    • ATP synthesis
    • e- + 2H+ + 1/2O2 = H2O
  25. What is the last electron acceptor?
  26. What is the name of the electron transport protein that carries electrons from I-->III?
  27. What is the name of the electron transport protein that carries electrons from III-->IV?
    Cytochrome C
  28. What happens if there is no final electron receiver?
    es are stalled
  29. Where does FADH2 go and where do the electrons proceed?
    II--> UQ-->III-->CC-->IV-->O2
  30. Where does NADH go and where do the electrons proceed?
    I--> UQ-->III-->CC-->IV-->O2
  31. small molecules that are easily reduced by accepting es
    e carriers
  32. Where are e carriers embedded?
    Where do they pump H+ ions?
    • inner mitochondrial membrane
    • intermembrane space
  33. What drives H+ out?
    Electron transport
  34. What is another term for oxidative phosphorylation?
    chemiosmotic coupling
  35. What drives active processes in the mitochondria?
    electrochemical proton gradient
  36. What drives pyruvate import?
    pH gradient
  37. What drives ADP-ATP import?
    voltage gradient
  38. ATP-synthesizing enzyme of the inner mitochondrial membrane
    ATP synthase
  39. Which of the chief components of the ATP synthase is embedded in the membrane?
  40. What is the pattern of energy transduction in the ATP synthase?
    electrical energy(PMF)--> mechanical energy(rotation)-->chemical energy(ATP)
  41. How does DNP uncouple the oxidation reaction?
    It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by carrying protons across the mitochondrial membrane, leading to a rapid consumption of energy without generation of ATP.
  42. What drives:
    a. ADP-ATP exchange
    b. pyruvate
    c. phosphate
    • a. voltage
    • b. pH
    • c.pH
  43. What is ADP substrate cotransported with?
  44. Rearrage:
    Direction of flow of H+ through ETC
    Direction of flow of H+ through ATP synthase
    ATP synthase
    Enter of es through ETCReduction of O2
    Proton gradient
    Action of uncouplers such as DNP
    • Enter of es through NADH
    • Reduction of O2
    • Direction of flow of H+ through ETC
    • Proton gradient
    • Direction of flow of H+ through ATP synthase
    • ATP synthase
    • Action of uncouplers such as DNP
  45. Name the 5 e carriers:
    • 1. flavoprotein
    • 2. cytochromes
    • 3. protein bound copper
    • 4. quinones
    • 3. iron-sulfur proteins
  46. Signal patches
    • - surface
    • -recognized in final functional
  47. FMN<Q<b<c1<c<a<O2
    Increasing positive redox reaction
    • FMN<Q<b<c1<c<a<O2
    • more reduced
  48. Only ubiquinone does not accept and donate electrons as prosthetic groups
  49. Give characteristics of
    a. flavoproteins
    b. cytochromes
    c. Fe-S
    d. quinones
    e. protein bound copper
    • a. FAD--> FADH2
    • b. Fe in the middle
    • c. cysteine
    • d. can accept 2 electrons and 2 protons
    • hydrophobic, hydrocarbon tale
    • c. has copper