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ATP formation driven by high energy electrons removed from substrate oxidation paths such as TCA cycle, with energy released for ATP formation by passage of the electrons through electron- transport chain in the mitochondria
direct synthesis of ATP through the transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
substrate- level phosphorylation
Where does substrate-level phosphorylation occur?
mitochondria and chloroplast arose from symbiotic eukaryote that took residence within a primitive host cell
Where do Glyscolysis, Aerobic respiration, TCA cycle and Electron Transport chain occur?
- 1. cytoplasm
- 2. mitochondria
- 3. matrix
- 4. cristae
What are the substrates in the substrate-level phosphorylation?
- G: glucose
- TCA: acetyl CoA, CO2
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Mitochondria through aerobic respiration
Do all eukaryotes have mitochondria?
When pyruvate undergoes an anaerobic reaction, what occurs?
What are the products of G?
How many C atoms does pyuvate have?
Where does ATP synthase occur?
What happens when acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate react with each other?
What are the substrates and products for the prep step?
- S: 2 pyruvate(3C)
- 2 acetyl CoA(2C)
- 2 CO2(1C)
- 2 NADH
Are any substrate molecules reduced/ oxidized during the TCA cycle?
- NAD+ --> NADH
- FADH --> FABH2
When are all the CO2 produced?
- 2- prep step
- 4- krebs cycle
What are the products for the TCA cycle?
2(3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1GTP--> 1 ATP)
high energy electron carriers: NADH and FADH2
Are any substrate molecules reduced/ oxidized during the electron transport chain?
- NADH--> NAD+ + H
- FADH2--> FADH + H
What runs ATP synthesis?
proton gradient chain/ force
an electrochemical gradient built across energy transducing membranes following translocation of protons during electron transport
What is the voltage gradient outside the membrane?
When does cellular respiration occur?
- ATP synthesis
- e- + 2H+ + 1/2O2 = H2O
What is the last electron acceptor?
What is the name of the electron transport protein that carries electrons from I-->III?
What is the name of the electron transport protein that carries electrons from III-->IV?
What happens if there is no final electron receiver?
es are stalled
Where does FADH2 go and where do the electrons proceed?
Where does NADH go and where do the electrons proceed?
small molecules that are easily reduced by accepting es
Where are e carriers embedded?
Where do they pump H+ ions?
- inner mitochondrial membrane
- intermembrane space
What drives H+ out?
What is another term for oxidative phosphorylation?
What drives active processes in the mitochondria?
electrochemical proton gradient
What drives pyruvate import?
What drives ADP-ATP import?
ATP-synthesizing enzyme of the inner mitochondrial membrane
Which of the chief components of the ATP synthase is embedded in the membrane?
What is the pattern of energy transduction in the ATP synthase?
electrical energy(PMF)--> mechanical energy(rotation)-->chemical energy(ATP)
How does DNP uncouple the oxidation reaction?
It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by carrying protons across the mitochondrial membrane, leading to a rapid consumption of energy without generation of ATP.
a. ADP-ATP exchange
What is ADP substrate cotransported with?
Direction of flow of H+ through ETC
Direction of flow of H+ through ATP synthase
Enter of es through ETCReduction of O2
Action of uncouplers such as DNP
- Enter of es through NADH
- Reduction of O2
- Direction of flow of H+ through ETC
- Proton gradient
- Direction of flow of H+ through ATP synthase
- ATP synthase
- Action of uncouplers such as DNP
Name the 5 e carriers:
- 1. flavoprotein
- 2. cytochromes
- 3. protein bound copper
- 4. quinones
- 3. iron-sulfur proteins
- - surface
- -recognized in final functional
Increasing positive redox reaction
- more reduced
Only ubiquinone does not accept and donate electrons as prosthetic groups
Give characteristics of
e. protein bound copper
- a. FAD--> FADH2
- b. Fe in the middle
- c. cysteine
- d. can accept 2 electrons and 2 protons
- hydrophobic, hydrocarbon tale
- c. has copper