AGS 101 Test 1

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  1. Estrous Cycle
    • Days from the beginning of one estrus period to the next
    • days from one ovulation to the next
  2. Estrus
    • Receptivity to the male
    • Stands to be mounted
    • "In heat"
  3. Anestrus
    without estrus
  4. polyestrous
    • several estrus periods per year
    • cow, sow
  5. Long day breeder
    • controlled by day length and time of year
    • spring breeders - mares, wild birds
  6. Short day breeder
    • controlled by day length and time of year
    • fall breeders - ewe, deer
  7. Which farm animal female ovulates after she goes out of estrus?
  8. When they are cycling regularly, farm animals come into estrus and ovulate about every
    • 21 days
    • Exception: Ewe (17 days)
  9. Myometrium
    • layers of muscle in the uterus
    • oxytocin makes this contract, which moves the sperm along
  10. endometrium
    • "inside the uterus" 
    • lining of the uterus and the source of PGF2a 
  11. Site of fertilization?
    The ampulla of the oviduct
  12. Follicle
    • located in the ovary
    • ovum develops into the follicle
    • some develop into the maximum size
    • produce estrogens
    • mature follicles rupture because of LH surge, freeing the ovum (ovulation)
  13. Corpus hemorrhagicum
    • "Bloody body" 
    • a blood clot formed in the cavity after the rupture of the mature ovarian follicle during ovulation
  14. Corpus Luteum
    • Produces progesterone
    • "Yellow body"
    • Cells of follicle change into the CL
    • During pregnancy, CL continues to function, preventing estrous cycles and producing progesterone
  15. Source of GnRH (Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone)?
  16. Function of GnRH in female?
    • Release of FSH and LH 
    • GnRH is released in the presence of estrogen, when progesterone levels are low
  17. Source of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)?
    Anterior Pituitary 
  18. Purpose of FSH in females?
    Stimulate follicle growth and estrogen production
  19. Luteinizing Hormone source?
    Anterior Pituitary
  20. Purpose of LH in females?
    • Surge of LH initiates ovulation
    • CL formation
  21. Estradiol source?
    Ovary - follicle
  22. Purpose of estrodial in females?
    Estrus - mucus secretion, etc.
  23. Source of progesterone?
  24. function of progesterone?
    maintenance of pregnancy, inhibits release of LH and FSH
  25. Prostaglandin F2a Source?
    Endometrium, among others
  26. Prostaglandin F2a function?
    Lyses CL
  27. Oxytocin function?
    Gamete transport, uterine contraction, milk let down
  28. Oxytocin source?
    Posterior pituitary
  29. Two components of semen?
    seminal plasma and spermatazoa
  30. Where is seminal plasma produced?
    accessory glands
  31. where are spermatazoa produced?
    in the seminiferous tubules located in the testicle
  32. where does sperm maturation and storage take place?
  33. Where is testosterone produced?
    by the interstitial cells of Leydig
  34. When a testicle is retained in the abdominal cavity the male is called what?
  35. In a cryptorchid, the retained testicle produces testosterone but not viable spermatozoa why?
    Testicle is too hot
  36. When cattle are artificially inseminated, what kind of semen is used?
  37. When sows or gilts are inseminated, the semen is usually stored at what temperature?
    • 55 degrees
    • Boar semen does not recover well from freezing
  38. Most mares are housed and artificially inseminated on the same farm as the stallion with what type of semen?
  39. What types of analogs are used to aid in estrus synchronization by lysing or destroying the CL?
    Analogs of prostaglandin
  40. What types of analogs are used to aid in estrus synchronization by mimicking the action of the CL and preventing estrus or ovulation?
    Analogs of progesterone
  41. What's a CIDR used for?
    • To administer exogenous progesterone inter-vaginally when synchronizing estrus in cows and ewes
    • Controlled Internal Drug Release
  42. An advantage of using ultrasound compared to rectal palpation in diagnosing pregnancy?
    It can be used earlier than rectal palpation
  43. Purpose of LH in males?
    Sperm production
  44. Function of estrodial in males?
    Testosterone production
  45. Source of testosterone?
    Testicles (interstitial cells of leydig)
  46. Gestation length for cow?
    • 283 days
    • 9-1/2 mo
  47. Gestation length for ewe?
    • 145-150
    • About 4.8 - 5 months
  48. Gestation length for doe/nanny?
    • 145-150
    • 4.8-5 months
  49. Gestation length for mare?
    • 336-340
    • 11.2 months
  50. gestation length for a sow?
    • 114 days
    • 3.8 months
    • most preidctable
  51. Gestation length for a human?
    266 (38 weeks)
  52. What is the length of the cow's estrous cycle, how long is she in estrus for and when does she ovulate?
    • Cycle - 21 days
    • Estrus - 12-15 hours
    • Ovulates - 12 hours after
  53. What is the length of the ewe's estrous cycle, how long is she in estrus for and when does she ovulate?
    • Cycle - 17 days
    • Estrus - 36 hours
    • Ovulation - 6 before end
  54. What is the length of the doe (goat) estrous cycle, how long is she in estrus and when does she ovulate?
    • Cycle - 21 days
    • Estrus - 40 hours
    • Ovulation - 12 before end
  55. How long is a sow's estrous cycle, how long is she in estrus and when does she ovulate?
    • Cycle - 21 days
    • Estrus - 48 hours
    • Ovulation - 12 before end
  56. How long is a mare's estrous cycle, how long is she in estrus and when does she ovulate?
    • Cycle - 21 days
    • Estrus - 5-7 days
    • Ovulates - 24 hours before end
  57. Purpose of studying animal science?
    • Increase understanding of the biology of animals
    • Increase efficiency (increase productivity, decrease costs)
    • Produce superior animal products and increased nutrient density
    • Develop biotechnologies to enhance production
    • Develop products that improve the quality of life for humans
  58. Beef industry in MO?
    • 2nd in nation in total beef cow numbers
    • 2 million cows on 68,000 farms
    • Average herd size 34 cows
    • $1B annually
  59. Dairy industry in MO?
    • 20th in US
    • 115,000 dairy cows and 1,760 licensed producers
    • SW MO home to thriving grass-based dairy program
    • New Zealand invested $50 million
  60. Equine industry in MO?
    • 3rd in US
    • 200,000 horses at 37,000 locations
    • Estimated value at $420 Million - second only to beef cattle and calves
  61. Swine in MO?
    • 6th in US
    • 6.3 million pigs on 4,000 operations
    • Declining industry (in number of operations)
    • 1994-10,000 operations, 1998 5,000
  62. Difference between arable and cultivated land?
    • Arable can be used for growing crops and is ideally suited for cultivation
    • Cultivated land is actually being used to grow crops, requires extensive inputs
  63. Is there sufficient food production to provide for the current world population? If so, why are people hungry?
    • Yes - Ag produces 17% more calories per person than 30 years ago 
    • Provides 2,720 KCal per person per day
    • But- insufficient land to grow or money to buy enough food
  64. What percent of the US population is actively involved in the production of agriculture?
    Less than 2 percent
  65. How are humans and animals able to utilize cellulose (the most abundant organic compound on earth)?
    • Microbes help us out. They produce cellulase, which break the beta bonds. 
    • Microbes get the glucose, mammals get volatile fatty acids, which are used for energy
    • Microbes ferment the cellulose
    • Nonruminants have smaller fermentation vats than ruminants 
    • Ruminants have a fermentation vat comprised of 3 chambers and a true stomach - they provide a way for humans to "harvest" cellulose
  66. Cellulose is glucose linked by beta-bonds. Can mammal enzymes degrade it?
    Nope. We need microbes to produce cellulase to break the beta bonds. They use the glucose for themselves.
  67. Why are ruminants a way for humans to harvest cellulose?
    They turn grass into beef
  68. Livestock receipts account for what percentage of all agriculture commodities?
  69. Biological lag?
    • The time it takes to change numbers and quality
    • Cattle, roughly 30 months from birth to slaughter
  70. A general trend in US livestock production is greater productivity from fewer animals. How is this accomplished with beef cattle?
    • Genetics (selecting for increased carcass weight)
    • Increased average daily gain which equals fewer days on feed
    • Fewer DOF = increased feedlot capacity
    • Increased number of imported calves from Mexico
  71. How are dairy producers getting more milk from fewer cows?
    • Single trait selection (genetics)
    • Advancements in health and nutrition
    • Technology (rBST) and milking parlors
  72. How are poultry and swine producers getting increased production from fewer farms?
    • Most are CAFOs (vertical integration)
    • Greater controls (nutrition, climate, etc.) from birth through slaughter
    • Economies of scale
  73. What is shrink?
    • Animals lose a percentage of their body weight when transported
    • Cattle lose roughly 6%
    • Sheep, goats can lose 20%
  74. Six classes of nutrients?
    • Water
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (Fats)
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  75. Which classes of nutrients yield energy?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Protein
  76. Key elements in carbohydrates and their ratio?
    • C-H-O 
    • 1-2-1
  77. Key elements in fats?
  78. Key elements in proteins?
  79. Vitamins key elements
    • CHON
    • Vitamin B12
    • Also may contain cobalt
  80. Macrominerals?
    Ca Na Mg Su K Cl P
  81. Trace minerals?
    I Se Mo Co F Fe Mn Cu Zn 
  82. Functions of water?
    • metabolic reactions
    • transport of other nutrients
    • maintenance of body temp
    • physical shape
  83. Three sources of water?
    • Drinking water
    • Free water - ingested as a component of feed
    • metabolic water - arises from metabolism in tissues
  84. Functions of carbs?
    • source of energy for body functions
    • c-skeletons for building blocks of other nutrients (vitamins, proteins, fats)
    • milk synthesis
  85. Lipid functions
    • fat is the main energy providing lipid 
    • contain 2.25 times more energy per pound than carbohydrates
    • precursors of prostaglandins and as structural components of cells
  86. Functions of minerals?
    • frequently a component of vitamins, hormones
    • needed for activation of certain molecules
    • role in metabolism
  87. Vitamins, briefly?
    • Organic substances required in v. small amounts in the diet
    • Not closely related in chemical formula
    • Fat soluble (ADEK) and water soluble (B complex and C)
  88. What is greater - as fed concentrations or dry matter concentrations?
    dry matter concentrations
  89. which is greater - AF amounts or DM amounts?
    AF amounts
  90. Two classifications of fatty acids?
    • Saturated fats (solid at room temp, no double bonds with carbon chains)
    • Unsaturated fats (liquids at room temp, double bonds exist - polyunsaturated have multiple double bonds)
  91. Three volatile fatty acids that are primary products of ruminal fermentation?
    • Acetate
    • Proprionate
    • Butryate
    • These are short-chain fatty acids that are water soluble, so can be absorbed into the blood
  92. Three processes that comprise digestion?
    • Prehension of food or feed
    • Mechanical chewing or grinding
    • Mixing with digestive acids and enzymes to chemically break down the foods
    • Absorption (transport of foods across the intestinal mucosa to the blood or lymph system)
  93. Mechanical process of digestion
    • Mastication
    • Deglutition (swallowing)
    • Regurgitation 
    • Defecation
  94. Features of digestive system in nonruminants (like pig)
    • Mouth (prehension)
    • Esophagus 
    • Stomach (mixing and holding)
    • Small intestine (primary site of digestion and absorption)
    • Large intestine (major site of water absorption)
  95. Pancreas is ducted into the duodenum (upper part of small intestine). What does it do?
    Produces enzymes needed for digestion
  96. Features of digestive system in poultry
    • mouth (no teeth)
    • esophagus (crop, for food holding and moistening)
    • stomach (proventriculus and ventriculus)
    • ceca (limited function)
    • large intestine
    • cloaca
  97. proventriculus
    glandular area (adds enzymes)
  98. ventriculus
    • gizzard
    • crushing area
  99. Features of digestive system in horse
    • huge cecum (50% of digesta)
    • cecal fermentation is post-absorption
  100. Ruminant digestion
    • Mouth (no upper incisors)
    • Rumen
    • Reticulum
    • Omasum
    • Abomasum
    • Small intestine
    • Cecum, large intestine
  101. Four parts of rumen's compound stomach?
    • rumen (fermentation, absorption)
    • reticulum (receives feed, mixing, regurgitation, ercutation)
    • omasum (receives digesta outflow from first two compartments)
    • abomasum (final holding and mixing)
  102. reticulum
    • honeycomb
    • receives feed
    • initiates mixing, regurgitation, eructation
  103. omasum
    • many plies
    • third area of stomach receives digesta outflow of the rumen/reticulum
  104. Digestion of carbs in ruminants
    • Cellulose - Rumen, yields VFAs, AA, B vitamins
    • Starch - Rumen, yields VFAs, AA, B vitamins
  105. Digestion of carbs in nonruminants
    • Cellulose - Cecum or large intestine (colon), yields VFAs, B vitamins, AA
    • Starch - small intestine, yields glucose
  106. Digestion of proteins in ruminants?
    • Essentially, when it comes to protein, the ruminant gets what the bugs leave behind or create
    • Ruminally degraded proteins (Rumen, Microbial Cell Proteins, Small Intestine)
    • Ruminally undegraded protein ("bypass protein" - Digested in Small Intestine)
  107. Digestion of proteins in nonruminants?
    • Nonruminants get what they eat
    • small intestine is the primary site of digestion and absorption in the nonruminant 
    • the exception is cellulose
Card Set:
AGS 101 Test 1
2013-02-14 13:40:53
AGS Animal Science Test

Reproduction, nutrition, digestion, purpose
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