Card Set Information
Nutrition Test # 1
What does good nutrition promote? (
(strong immune system)
- successful reproduction
- efficient production
- pleasure and pride of owner
(good coat, skin, body condition)
things that bad or poor nutrition cause.
stunting (poor growth)
low immune system (higher risk for diseas)
shorter life span
poor or no reproduction
lowered or no production
energy producing nutrients.
List the 3 non-energy producing nutrients
Define energy-producing nutrient.
A nutrient, which, after absorption, produce the energy to enable the animal to live.
Provides energy for exercise, metabolism, maintaining body activities.
Why is a dogs energy requirements difficult to determine?
dogs vary greatly in adult body size
What factors must be assessed in order to determine energy requirements?
Life stage (growth vs. lactactin vs. senior)
State of health (body weight, condition, hair coat)
Level of activity
Environmental conditions (temps, stress)
Measure of the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp. of one gram of water from 14.5degrees to 15.5. degrees C.
1 kcal = 1000 cal
The amount of heat released when the food is completely burned and is measured in kcal/kg of food.
The amount of energy left over when some of the gross energy is lost in the feces
the amount of energy left over when some of the gross energy is lost in the feces.
The amount of energy remaining when ME loses some energy in heat production.
This is the amount of energy the animal can use for their energy requirements
The breakdown of food to smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the blood following digestion.
Make energy available to the animal
Large complex molecules containing
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
What is the basic component of a
Non-Essential Amino acids
animal is able to synthesize them in sufficient amounts. Therefore do not need to take them in as part of their diet.
Essential Amino Acids
animal is unable to synthesize them at all or in sufficient amounts. Diet must contain them
Essential amino acids for dog and cat are?
What are the functions of proteins?
structural component of organs and soft tissues
components of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
growth, development and repair of body tissues
regulation of metabolism
What medical conditions should we be aware of with dietary protein?
if the animal has any liver or kidney problems, the protein in the diet must be of appropriate amount, and a very high quality, useable protein
What are Lipids made up of ?
fatty acids and glycerol
fatty acids can be essential and non-essential
What are the functions of fats/lipids?
Insulation and organ support
Transport and absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Enhances taste of food
3 essential fatty acids are?
- main unsaturated fatty acid found in vegetable oils
- can be synthesized from linoleic acid in thedog, but NOT the cat
- synthesize by both the cat and dog if they have sufficient amounts of linoleic acid
What is an
Substance which inhibits the oxidation of another substance
Why do diets high in fat need high levels of antioxidants?
fat is easily oxidized and can become rancid
once fat is oxidized it is of no value and the animal
How do fat deficiencies usually manifest themselves?
skin problems (loss of moisture from skin)
hair coat problems
can become deficient due to inadequate intake
What type of health problems can be associated with diets high in fat?
"Yellow fat disease"
fat oxidizes and couases a discolouration of the fat and painful fibrous deposits in the adipose tissue
What is hepatic lipidosis?
"fatty liver disease"
large amounts of fat sent to liver to be metabolized, and liver cells are unable to handle this work and then do not even perform their normal functions
Usually observed in fat cats that have been anorexic for a couple of days
How are carbohydrates classified?
Classified by solubility (digestibility)
Monosaccharides - simple carbs.
Polysaccharides - complex carbs.
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Muscle and CNS function
Synthesis of certain compounds
Stimulates normal GI peristalsis
What does the term dietary fibre refer to?
any polysaccharide which is considered insoluble
little use ot dogs and cats as they are unable to digest it
How is dietary fibre used in animal nutrition?
animals which have a large amount of bacterial fermentation use dietary fibre readily as an energy source
How can an animal acquire water?
Water in food
How are minerals classified?
Classified by the amoun they are needed by an animal.
Macro Minerals - Ca, Fe
Micro Minerals - Zinc
What are the functions of calcium and phosphorus?
Structural - growth, development and maintenance of bones, teeth, tissues
Nerve and muscle function
What is the ratio for CA and P for cats and dogs?
Ca : P
1.2-1.4 : 1
What can happen if there are alterations to this ratio?
can cause and increase or decrease of the absorption of the other . . leading to deficiencies
ex. rickets, osteomalacia
Why is supplementation of minerals NOT recommended if an animal is being fed a high quality diet?
high quality pet foods will contain the proper amounts and ratios of minerals.
can lead to excesses and deficiencies
How are Vitamins classified?
Classified by their solubility
Water soluble - readily excreted in urine
Fat soluble - stored in the liver
3 types of commercially made pet foods
Generic or Private label
- sold through grocery stores or discount department stores
Ex. Old Roy
- sold through grocery store chains
- sold in pet stores, vet clinics
Pros and cons to feeding dry food
Pros - convenient, reasonable in price, no bad odour
cons - not as palatable
Pros and cons to feeding canned food
Pros - very palatable, no preservatives
Cons - bad odour, more difficult to store
Pros and cons to feeding semi moist food
Pros - usually packed in individual servings, high digestibility
Cons - often contain large amounts of sugar, more expensive
What is Principle Display Panel? (PDP)
First line of communication and attracts the consumers attention.
Net weight display
Bursts and flags
Product picture or slogan
Statement of Intent
What is the Information Panel (IP)
second line of communication, supplies data about the product
helps determine if the manufacturer is making claims for a specific purpose diet vs. an all purpose diet.
Basis of Nutrition Claim
Documented by calculation method, or feeding trial method
listed in descending order by weight
water content will affect the weight of an individual ingredient
includes crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and moisture
Things to consider when evaluation a pet food
Is the nutritional adequacy statement based on feeding trials?
Is there a phone number on the label for consumer inquiries?
If the answer is no to either question, the consumer should be wary of using the food.
Pet food certifications/ regualtions in Canada and U.S.
Food certification regulates the productoin, marketing and sales of commercial pet foods.
In canada there ae NO government regulations for assuring quality and consistency of pet foods. - self regulated