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What does good nutrition promote? (7 things)
- -optimum growth
- - health (strong immune system)
- - longevity
- - successful reproduction
- - efficient production
- - profit
- - pleasure and pride of owner (good coat, skin, body condition)
List 6 things that bad or poor nutrition cause.
- stunting (poor growth)
- low immune system (higher risk for diseas)
- shorter life span
- poor or no reproduction
- lowered or no production
- no profit
List the 3 energy producing nutrients.
List the 3 non-energy producing nutrients
Define energy-producing nutrient.
- A nutrient, which, after absorption, produce the energy to enable the animal to live.
- Provides energy for exercise, metabolism, maintaining body activities.
Why is a dogs energy requirements difficult to determine?
dogs vary greatly in adult body size
What factors must be assessed in order to determine energy requirements?
- Life stage (growth vs. lactactin vs. senior)
- State of health (body weight, condition, hair coat)
- Level of activity
- Environmental conditions (temps, stress)
- Measure of the amount of heat energy required to raise the temp. of one gram of water from 14.5degrees to 15.5. degrees C.
- 1 kcal = 1000 cal
Define gross energy
The amount of heat released when the food is completely burned and is measured in kcal/kg of food.
Define Digestible Energy
The amount of energy left over when some of the gross energy is lost in the feces
Define Metabolizable Energy
the amount of energy left over when some of the gross energy is lost in the feces.
Define Net Energy
- The amount of energy remaining when ME loses some energy in heat production.
- This is the amount of energy the animal can use for their energy requirements
- The breakdown of food to smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the blood following digestion.
- Make energy available to the animal
What are proteins?
Large complex molecules containing Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
What is the basic component of a Protein
What are Non-Essential Amino acids
animal is able to synthesize them in sufficient amounts. Therefore do not need to take them in as part of their diet.
What are Essential Amino Acids
animal is unable to synthesize them at all or in sufficient amounts. Diet must contain them
Essential amino acids for dog and cat are?
What are the functions of proteins?
- structural component of organs and soft tissues
- components of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
- provide energy
- growth, development and repair of body tissues
- regulation of metabolism
What medical conditions should we be aware of with dietary protein?
if the animal has any liver or kidney problems, the protein in the diet must be of appropriate amount, and a very high quality, useable protein
What are Lipids made up of ?
- fatty acids and glycerol
- fatty acids can be essential and non-essential
What are the functions of fats/lipids?
- Energy storage
- Insulation and organ support
- Transport and absorption of fat soluble vitamins
- Skin health
- Enhances taste of food
3 essential fatty acids are?
- Linoleic - main unsaturated fatty acid found in vegetable oils
- Arachidonic - can be synthesized from linoleic acid in thedog, but NOT the cat
- Linolenic - synthesize by both the cat and dog if they have sufficient amounts of linoleic acid
What is an antioxidant?
Substance which inhibits the oxidation of another substance
Why do diets high in fat need high levels of antioxidants?
- fat is easily oxidized and can become rancid
- once fat is oxidized it is of no value and the animal
How do fat deficiencies usually manifest themselves?
- skin problems (loss of moisture from skin)
- hair coat problems
- can become deficient due to inadequate intake
What type of health problems can be associated with diets high in fat?
- gastrointestinal problems
- fatty stools
What is pansteatitis?
- "Yellow fat disease"
- fat oxidizes and couases a discolouration of the fat and painful fibrous deposits in the adipose tissue
What is hepatic lipidosis?
- "fatty liver disease"
- large amounts of fat sent to liver to be metabolized, and liver cells are unable to handle this work and then do not even perform their normal functions
- Usually observed in fat cats that have been anorexic for a couple of days
How are carbohydrates classified?
- Classified by solubility (digestibility)
- Monosaccharides - simple carbs.
- Polysaccharides - complex carbs.
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
- Quick energy
- Energy storage
- Muscle and CNS function
- Synthesis of certain compounds
- Stimulates normal GI peristalsis
What does the term dietary fibre refer to?
- any polysaccharide which is considered insoluble
- little use ot dogs and cats as they are unable to digest it
How is dietary fibre used in animal nutrition?
animals which have a large amount of bacterial fermentation use dietary fibre readily as an energy source
How can an animal acquire water?
- Drinking water
- Water in food
- Metabolic water
How are minerals classified?
- Classified by the amoun they are needed by an animal.
- Macro Minerals - Ca, Fe
- Micro Minerals - Zinc
What are the functions of calcium and phosphorus?
- Structural - growth, development and maintenance of bones, teeth, tissues
- Blood clotting
- Nerve and muscle function
What is the ratio for CA and P for cats and dogs?
What can happen if there are alterations to this ratio?
- can cause and increase or decrease of the absorption of the other . . leading to deficiencies
- ex. rickets, osteomalacia
Why is supplementation of minerals NOT recommended if an animal is being fed a high quality diet?
- high quality pet foods will contain the proper amounts and ratios of minerals.
- can lead to excesses and deficiencies
How are Vitamins classified?
Classified by their solubility
- Water soluble - readily excreted in urine
- Fat soluble - stored in the liver
3 types of commercially made pet foods
- Generic or Private label - sold through grocery stores or discount department stores
- Ex. Old Roy
- Popular Food - sold through grocery store chains
- Ex. Pedigree
- Premium Brands - sold in pet stores, vet clinics
- Ex. Medi-cal
Pros and cons to feeding dry food
- Pros - convenient, reasonable in price, no bad odour
- cons - not as palatable
Pros and cons to feeding canned food
- Pros - very palatable, no preservatives
- Cons - bad odour, more difficult to store
Pros and cons to feeding semi moist food
- Pros - usually packed in individual servings, high digestibility
- Cons - often contain large amounts of sugar, more expensive
What is Principle Display Panel? (PDP)
- First line of communication and attracts the consumers attention.
- Product identity
- Net weight display
- Bursts and flags
- Product picture or slogan
What is the Information Panel (IP)
- second line of communication, supplies data about the product
- -Nutrition statement
- -Ingredient list
- -Guaranteed analysis
- -Feed directions
helps determine if the manufacturer is making claims for a specific purpose diet vs. an all purpose diet.
Basis of Nutrition Claim
Documented by calculation method, or feeding trial method
- listed in descending order by weight
- water content will affect the weight of an individual ingredient
includes crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and moisture
Things to consider when evaluation a pet food
- Is the nutritional adequacy statement based on feeding trials?
- Is there a phone number on the label for consumer inquiries?
- If the answer is no to either question, the consumer should be wary of using the food.
Pet food certifications/ regualtions in Canada and U.S.
- Food certification regulates the productoin, marketing and sales of commercial pet foods.
- In canada there ae NO government regulations for assuring quality and consistency of pet foods. - self regulated