Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2013-02-12 17:35:53

Module 1: Learning Objectives: •describe the characteristics common to all living things •describe life's hierarchy of organization •distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms •characterize the domains and kingdoms of life •recognize evolution as a unifying theme in biology •understand the scientific method and hypothesis testing •given an example of an experiment, identify the dependent and independent variables and experimental controls •interpret data, simple statistical analyses, and be able to identify correctly constructed data figures
Show Answers:

  1. What are the 8 characteristics of all living things?
    • Order/Cells
    • Regulation
    • Growth and Development
    • Metabolism
    • Response to Environment
    • Reproduction and DNA
    • Evolutionary Adaptation
  2. All living things have complex organizations. What is this called?
  3. The living organisms need order to live why?
    Living things have complex organization. For example, a single-celled organism is composed of highly organized molecules while multi-cellular organisms have many layers of organization.
  4.  True or False:
    Something must have all the characteristics of life to be considered alive.
  5. What is a localized group of the same species that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring called? 
    a. individual  
    b. population  
    c. community  
    d. ecosystem
     b. population
  6. Which of these categories in the hierarchy of life is the most inclusive? 
    A. ecosystem
    B. community  
    C. organ system  
    D. population  
    E. tissue
    F. molecule  
    A. ecosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of these scenarios demonstrates the biological theme of interaction of organisms with their environment? 
    A. grasshopper eating a leaf  
    B. flat shape of a leaf allows efficient absorption of sunlight  
    C. excess ATP causing a decrease in the production of ATP  
    D. offspring that looks like its parents  
    e. none of the above
    A. grasshopper eating a leaf
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. True or False:
    Evolution is the overarching theme of biology. 
  9. To which domain do humans belong? 
    A. Archaea  
    B. Bacteria  
    C. Eukarya  
    d. none of the above
    C. Eukarya  
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which variable is measured during a scientific experiment? 
    a. independent  
    b. dependent  
    c. standardized  
    d. all of the above  
    e. none of the above
     b. dependent
  11. In an experiment where 100 people are asked to choose their favorite color from a list of 7 different colors, what will the degrees of freedom be for a Chi-square test? 
    A. 1
    B. 99  
    C. 100
    D. 8  
    E. 2  
    F. 7  
    G. 6  
    H. 0  
    G. 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. True or False:
    The independent variable in an experiment may have an effect on the dependent variable. 
  13. True or False:
    If the p-value in a chi-square test is less than 0.05, then we reject the null hypothesis. 
  14. Living things regulate their internal environments. What is this called?
  15. What is regulation?
    Living things regulate their internal environments. Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment in the face of a fluctuating external environments called "homeostasis". For example, humans maintain a fairly constant body temperature of about 98.6° F.
  16. Organisms add mass or "grow" and change the organization of their bodies as they mature or "develop". What is this?
    Growth and Development
  17. All living things need energy input for growth, development, and the maintenance of homeostasis
  18. Living things must be able to respond to the environment around them to stay alive
    Response to Environment
  19.  Reproduction whether sexual or asexual is away to get genes into the next generation
    Reproduction and DNA
  20. Natural selection allows species of organisms to be adapted to the environment in which we find them.
  21. Hierarchy of Life: the entire portion of the earth that is inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
  22. all of the organisms in a given area and all of the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them
  23. all of the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction
  24. a localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
  25. individual living things
  26.  a team of organs that cooperates in a specific function
    Organ System:
  27. a body part that consists of two or more tissues
  28.  a group of similar cells; an integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
  29.  Life's fundamental unit of structure and function; the fundamental unit of life
  30. functional component of a cell
  31. chemical structure composed of two or more atoms
  32. distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms
    the difference between prokaryotic organisms from eukaryotic organisms is that prokaryotic organisms do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic organisms do
  33. characterize the domains and kingdoms of life
    species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain.
  34. What is the unifying theme in biology?
    • Evolution via natural selection is the core theme that explains the unity and diversity of life on earth. The basic tenets of this theme include:
    • •Individuals in populations vary.
    • •Not all offspring produced survive.
    • •Individuals have unequal success at survival and reproduction.
    • •Over time, favorable traits accumulate.