What was the republican strategy when Grant ran in 1868?
"wave the bloody shirt", i.e. make grant a war hero.
What was black friday?
Fisk & Gould got treasury to stop making gold, hoard the gold already in circulation, and skyrocket the price. Black Friday was the day rates flew up and then crashed, ruining most people. One of many scandals during Grant's term
What was the Credit Mobilier?
Another scandal during Grant's time- Railroaders make a company, build railroad, and hire themselves at high prices, selling stock to all.
Describe the Whiskey Ring
Another Scandal during Grant. Gov't agents take millions in excise tax. even Grant's secretary involved.
William Belknap affair?
Grant's secretary of war Belknap took bribes. Was impeached.
underhanded man who scammed most of New York and earned millions from it.
drew political cartoons of Boss Tweed
Who prosecuted Tweed?
Samuel J. Tilden
Who led the Stalwarts? What did they believe?
Roscoe Conkling/ they were a faction of the Republican party who believed in patronage, or bascially a spoils system
Who were the Half Breeds? Who lead them?
James Blaine/ Another Republican faction, wanted a civil service reform (no spoils system)
What was the problem with the Hayes/Tilden elections?
Voting mix-up - disputed ballots in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana.
What was the Compromise of 1877
It broke the hayes/Tilden election dispute. Allowed Hayes (republicans) office, but abruptly ends military reconstruction because it required all troops removal from south.
What were Jim Crow Laws?
legalized segregation on the state level
What was the importance of the Plessy v. Ferguson case?
allowed segregation through the highest government, was not overturned till 1954 Brown v. Board
Why was President Garfield Assassinated? Who shot him?
So Chester Arthur would take office and the Stalwarts could get good jobs. Charles Guiteau
What was the Pendelton Act?
It said campagn contributions were illegal, and federal jobs could only be attained by heavy examination only
Major goals of Populist party?
Graduated income tax, direct senatorial election, gov't transport control
What was interesting about the presidental win of Harrison in 1888?
he didnt have the most popular vote, only electoral
Made fortune from steam/railroads
the Steel King, practiced Vertical Integration
the Oil Baron
"The Banker's Banker"
Good v. Bad name for the rich, successful
Captains of Industry/Robber Barons
Combine all aspects of manufacturing to save money and improve efficiency
allying with competitors to monopolize the market
Gospel of Wealth
the idea that the wealthy must be responsible and have a moral obligation to give back
Society of the Fittest
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
government regulates big businesses, control RR rates- they must be published, regulated by the ICC (Interstate Commerce Committee)
Corporate weapons against unions?
Yellow Dog- a contract that makes workers promise not to join unions before being hired. sometimes lockout rebels and starve them, or put them on black list to make it hard to get jobs
Who founded Knights of Labor?
Who founded the AF of L?
Difference btw KOL and AFOL?
AFofL did not allow blacks or women, KOL allowed everyone
Where did most immigrants come from before 1880? after?
W Europe and British Isles/S&E Europe
Why were immigrants disliked
they were seen as uneducated, that they woiuldnt assimilate, and were stealing jobs
What did the Chinese Exclusion act mandate?
Completely bars Chinese
What did Jane Addams do?
founded Hull house to help immigrants assimilate
what did lillian wald found?
a settlement/assimilation house
What does the APA do?
attempt to keep immigrants out
What were Booker T washingtons views?
blacks may not get social equality but should strive to prove themselves. economic independence will set them free.
What did WEB Dubois feel?
He demanded complete equality immediately
Who led Nez Pierce tribe & fought reservations? Apache?
What did the Homestead Act provide for?
gave out land for cheap in West- Indians dont like because they are losing land.
What happened to Buffalo supply
drastically declined- mostly due to trains- people hunted for fun wastefully during long train rides
What did Helen Hunt Jackson write?
'A Century of Dishonor'- a book about the gov't and the indians.
What caused the Battle of the Wounded Knee?
Gov't banned the Indian Ghost Dance, which was supposed to defend and restore indian way of life.
What did the Dawes act stipulate?
tribes are legal entities and can own land after years of good behavior. An attempt to make them 'normal'
What did Frederick Jackson Turner write about?
was a historian who wrote about the Frontier. believed it shaped the nation but that it no longer existed because expansion had run its course.
What were some problems for farmers?
were being exploited and taken advantage of, had droughts, and problems with bugs, tariffs, and isolation. Could not organize into a government.
Mary E. LEase?
Queen of populists, ("let's raise less corn, and more hell!")
What did Coxey's army attempt to protest in marching to D.C.?