Chapter 2

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Chapter 2
2013-02-12 19:09:21

Module 2: Learning Objectives •recognize the chemical elements found in living things •describe the basic structure of an atom •understand the importance of electrons and their energy shells •distinguish between ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds •know what reactants and products are and why chemical reactions are important •understand water's characteristics and importance to living things •understand the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic and why that characteristic of molecules is important in terms of solubility and chemical reactions •describe pH and understand its importance to living things
Show Answers:

  1. What does the number of protons in an atom determine?
    atomic number
  2. What is the most common atom in the human body? 
    A. calcium
    B. hydrogen  
    C. nitrogen  
    D. carbon  
    E. oxygen  
    E. oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What is the charge on an atom with 6 neutron, 6 protons, and 6 electrons 
    a. negative 6  
    b. positive 6  
    c. neutral  
    d. negative 1  
    e. positive 1
     c. neutral
  4. True or False:
    The energy shell closest to the nucleus in an atom contains electrons with the lowest potential energy.
  5. Which of these types of bonds is the strongest? 
    A. covalent  
    B. all are equally strong
    C. ionic  
    D. hydrogen  
    A. covalent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which type of bond consists of two electrons equally shared between the atoms in the bond? 
    a. polar covalent  
    b. nonpolar covalent  
    c. ionic  
    d. hydrogen  
    e. none of the above
    nonpolar covalent
  7. True or False:
    Hydrogen bonds occur between water molecules while covalent bonds occur within a single water molecule.
  8. True or False:
    Ionic compounds can often form crystals.
  9. True or False:
    Ice is less dense than water.
  10. Which of these is NOT true about water? 
    a. Water is cohesive.  
    b. Water is adhesive.  
    c. Water takes a long time to cool compared to air.  
    d. Water takes a long time to heat compared to air.  
    e. All of the above
    e. All of the above
  11. True or False:
    A solution with a high pH has a relatively high concentration of hydrogen ions.
  12. What are the 4 elements that make up the majority of the human body?
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  13. What makes up the other 4% of the human body?
    Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium
  14. describe the basic structure of an atom
    The atom has a nucleus that is made up of protons and neutrons. There is a shell that surrounds the nucleus that the electrons fill up.
  15. understand the importance of electrons and their energy shells?
    Atoms of different elements have different numbers of electrons in their valence shells which means that they can interact with other atoms in different ways.
  16. Covalent bonds?
    They are the strongest bond, they usually are the ones that involve the electrons in the outer shell.
  17. Ionic bonds?
    Ionic bonds are the ones with the middle strength bond, that occur when opposite charges attract to hold atoms close to one another. Some atoms gain or lose electrons to fill the valence shell which can result in a particle that is negatively or positively charged.
  18. Hydrogen bonds?
    Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that form between molecules that contain polar covalent bonds. Basically, attractions occur between the hydrogen region of a molecule that contains polar covalent bonds which tends to be positive and the region of a different molecule that contains a more electronegative atom which tends to be negative
  19. Properties of Water?
    It is both cohesive and adhesive
  20. Describe the pH?
    The more hydrogens in the solution the higher pH (lower number)
  21. +