Biology 1010 Survey of Life, Test 1

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xjustcici
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200135
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Biology 1010 Survey of Life, Test 1
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2013-02-13 00:44:41
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Biology Survey Life
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Biology notecards for Survey of Life
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  1. What are the major functions of the integument?
    • Protection - UV damage, H2O loss or gain, mechanical/chemical injury, pathogens)
    • Sensory reception
    • Regulation of temperature (thermoregulation)
    • Excretion
    • Synthesis of Vitamin D
  2. What are the major functions of the skeletal system?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Attachment sites for muscles
    • Reservoir for calcium & phosphorus
    • Production of blood cells
  3. Ball & socket joint
    • Femur/pelvis
    • Humerus/scapula
    • Moves in every plane, most freedom of movement
  4. Immovable Joint
    • Skull
    • Do not move
  5. Hinge joint
    • Phalanges, elbow, knee
    • Allow freedom of movement in 1 plane
  6. Gliding joint
    • Carpals/metacarpals
    • Tarsals/metatarsals
  7. Pivot joint
    Atlas/axis
  8. Partially moveable
    The pubis in females
  9. What are the major functions of the muscular system?
    • Motion
    • Locomotion
    • Movement of substances through body
    • Thermogenesis (production of heat)
  10. Growth of cartilage
    • 1) Brain releases somatotropin
    • 2) Somatotropin stimulates chondrocytes located directly below perichondrium to produce new matrix
    • 3) The matrix is deposited below the perichondrium & the cartilage enlarges in all dimensions
  11. Growth of bone (length)
    • 1) Brain releases somatotropin
    • 2) Somatotropin stimulates osteocytes on either side of growth zone (epiphyseal plates) to produce new matrix
    • 3) Bone increases in length
  12. Growth of bone (width)
    • 1) Brain releases somatotropin
    • 2) Somatotropin stimulates osteocytes located directly below the periosteum to produce new matrix, which is then deposited to outside of bone
    • 3) Bone increases in diameter
    • 4) Somatotropin stimulates osteoclasts lining the marrow cavity to remove matrix
    • 5) As outside diameter of the bone increases, so does the inside diameter of the marrow cavity
  13. "All or none" law of muscle contraction
    • 1) One motor unit can contract 100% or not at all
    • 2) One muscle cell can contract 100% or not at all
    • 3) One sarcomere can contract 100% or not at all
  14. Ingestion
    Eating food
  15. Digestion
    • Chemical breakdown of large macromolecules into their subunits
    • Begins in mouth and ends at ileocecal valve.
  16. Absorption
    Movements of subunits from digestive tract into circulatory system for distribution throughout the body
  17. Salivary glands
    • Parotid
    • Sublingual
    • Submandibular
  18. Amylase
    Breaks down long chains of simple sugars (starch) into disaccharides called maltose
  19. Maltase
    Breaks down maltose sugar into two glucoses
  20. Order of food through digestive system
    • 1. Pharynx
    • 2. Esophagus
    • 3. Cardiac sphincter
    • 4. Stomach
    • 5. Pyloric sphincter
    • 6. Duodenum
    • 7. Jejunum
    • 8. Ileum
    • 9. Ileocecal valve
    • 10. Cecum
    • 11. Ascending colon
    • 12. Transverse colon
    • 13. Descending colon
    • 14. Sigmoid colon
    • 15. Rectum & anus
  21. Acid reflux
    Stomach contents splash up past cardiac sphincter and burns the esophagus
  22. Rugae
    Folds of the lining of the stomach- allows for expansion of stomach and increases surface area
  23. Gastric glands
    • Mucus: protects stomach lining and prevents auto-digestion
    • Pepsin: enzyme that breaks proteins into their building blocks, amino acids
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl): Strong acid; breaks apart food, lowers pH (acidity) of food in stomach to activate pepsin
  24. Pancreas produces:
    • Trypsin
    • Chymotrypson
    • Carboxypeptidase
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
    • DNAase & RNAase
  25. Lipase
    Breaks fats into glycerol & fatty acids
  26. DNAase & RNAase
    Break DNA & RNA into nucleotides
  27. Intestinal glands of the small intestine produce:
    • Maltase
    • Sucrase
    • Lactase
    • Aminopeptidase
  28. Sucrase
    Breaks down sucrose (table sugar) into glucose & fructose
  29. Lactase
    Breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose
  30. Aminopeptidase
    Breaks proteins into amino acids
  31. What does the mouth absorb?
    Nothing
  32. What does the esophagus absorb?
    Nothing
  33. What does the stomach absorb?
    Water, amino acids, alcohol, and drugs.
  34. What does the small intestine absorb?
    • Water, simple sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides are all absorbed by the blood vessels in the SI.
    • Glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed by the lymph vessel, the lacteal.
  35. What does the large intestine absorb?
    Large quantities of water
  36. Arteries
    Large vessels that carry blood away from heart
  37. Arteriole
    Small vessels that carry blood away from heart.
  38. Vein
    Large vessels that carry blood to the heart.
  39. Venule
    Small vessels that carry blood to the heart
  40. Capillary
    Tiny vessels that connect arterioles to venules
  41. Lymph vein
    Lymphatic
  42. Sensory receptors of the integument
    • Epidermis & Dermis: Free nerve ending
    • Dermis: Pacimian corpusile, Merkel's disc, Meissner's capsules (touch/pressure)
    • Dermis: End bulbs of Krause (cold)
    • Dermis: End organs of Ruffini (hot)
    • Dermis: Hair plexus (bug detector)
  43. Subcutaneous layer
    • Contains adipose (fat)
    • Thermal insulator
    • Energy reserve
    • Cushion- shock absorber
    • Acts as a reactant in synthesis of chemicals
  44. Stratum corneum
    Topmost layer of epidermis- made of dead cells and kerotin protein
  45. Stratum germinativum
    • Bottom two layers of epidermis
    • Undergoes constant mitosis, contains living cells & melanocytes
  46. Dermis
    Made up of protein fibers collagen & elastin
  47. Subcutaneous layer
    Adipose (fat) made of cells filled with oil in a "chicken wire" appearance
  48. Oil gland functions
    • Lubricate hair shaft and stratum corneum
    • Waterproofs hair & skin
    • Provide food for skin bacteria
  49. Arrector Pili muscle
    • Attached to the lowest part of hair follicle
    • Contracts to stick up & create goosebumps
    • Autonomic nervous system

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