Old final Exam

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elo266
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20014
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Old final Exam
Updated:
2010-05-20 07:31:29
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anatomy
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Anatomy 508
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  1. Steriod hormones
    A) cannot diffuse through the cell
    B) are proteins
    C) all of these
    D) bind to receptors in the nucleus of the cell
    D) bind to receptors in the nucleus of the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Hormones are released into the blood
    A) at relatively constant levels
    B) in response to a stimulus
    C) in a cyclic manner
    D) all of these
    D) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What do all hormones have in common?
    A) they use the second messenger mechanism to control the cell
    B) they bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell
    C) they are made from amino acids
    D) they are bound to transport molecules in the blood
    B) they bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    A) tends to inhibit osteoblasts
    B) decreases blood calcium levels
    C) allows the kidneys to retain calcium
    D) increases calcium excretion by the intestine
    A) tends to inhibit osteoblasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of those hormones is NOT secreted by the adrenal cortex?
    A) norepinephrine
    B) cortisol
    C) androgens
    D) aldosterone
    C) androgens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Thyroid hormone
    A) is produced in the hypothalamus
    B) all of these
    C) requires iodine for production
    D) release is stimulated by melatonin
    C) requires iodine of production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The hypothalamohypophysial portal system carries hormones from the
    a) anterior pituitary to the hypothalamus
    b) posterior pituitary to the hypothalamus
    c) hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
    d) hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
    • c) hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
    • "hypothalamo"- starts at the hypothalamus
    • "hypophysial"- ends at the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary)
  8. If fluid intake increases dramatically over a short time frame,
    a) ADH secretion increases
    b) ADH secretion decreases
    c) there is no effect on ADH secretion
    • b) ADH secretion decreases
    • ADH secretion is triggered by a rise in the solute concentration of the blood or a fall in BV/BP
  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates the release of
    A) prolactin and oxytocin
    B) FSH and LH
    C) progesterone and prolactin
    D) estrogen and testosterone
    B) FSH and LH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Glucagon
    a) primarily affects the liver
    b) causes glycogen to be stored
    c) decreases blood glucose
    d) all of these
    • a) primarily affects the liver
    • -is released when blood glucose is low and raises blood glucose levels by increasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver (takes glucogen out of storage and turns into glucose which then circulates in the bloodstream)
  11. If a person who has diabetes mellitus fails to take insulin, which symptoms may appear?
    a) hyperglycemia
    b) acidosis
    c) lethargy
    d) all of these
    • d) all of these
    • -doesn't have enough (or any) insulin to take the glucose out of the bloodstream and put it into storage. A lot of glucose extreted through the urine.
    • -ketoacidosis is a complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  12. The primary function of ADH is to
    A) prevent urination
    B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
    C) increase the amount of water lost at the kidney
    D) dilate the peripheral BVs to decrease BP
    B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The nervous system regulates the secretion of each of these hormones EXCEPT
    A) epinephrine
    B) ADH
    C) PTH
    D) oxytocin
    C) PTH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following occurs when a hormone binds to an intracellular receptor?
    A) activation of cyclic AMP
    B) increased lipid synthesis by ribosomes
    C) alters membrane permeability
    D) activation of mRNA synthesis
    A) activation of cyclic AMP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
    a) ACTH
    b) FSH
    c) FLH
    d) GnRH
    • b) FSH
    • -the nurse cells promote spermatogenesis
  16. Your friend is in labor and is not progressing well. The doctor orders a medication to promote uterine contractions. You know that the medication ordered is
    A) all of these
    B) oxytocin
    C) luteinizing hormones
    D) prolactin
    B) oxytocin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance except
    a) increased sympathetic stimulation
    b) elevated epinephrine
    c) vasodilation
    d) increased hematocrit
    • c) vasodilation
    • -vasodilation would dilate the BVs so there would be a greater diameter, which would create less resistance because less of the blood is being slowed down by friction against the vessel walls.
  18. A person with A+ blood has
    A) anti-A antibodies in their plasma
    B) anti-RH antibodies in their plasma
    C) A proteins (agglutinogens) on the red blood cells
    D) all of these
    C) A proteins (agglutinogens) on the red blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Respiratory scidosis can be
    A) all of these
    B) caused by increasing the rate and depth of breathing
    C) compensated for by kidney excretion of bicarbonate
    D) conpensated for by kidney excretion of ammoniom
    C) compensated for by kidney excretion of bicarbonate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. An increase of carbon dioxide and decrease in pH results in
    a) increased stroke volume
    b) increased heart rate
    c) increased cardiac output
    d) all of these
    • d) all of these
    • -cardiac output = HR * SV, so if it where to increase either HR or SV, it would have to increase cardiac output as well. If cardiac output increased, it would have to be due to an increase of either (or both) HR or SV.
  21. If the function of carbonic anhydrase was inhibited, which method of carbon dioxide transport in the blood would be affected to the greatest degree?
    a) in the form of water
    b) dissolved carbon dioxide
    c) carbaminohemoglobin
    d) bicarbonate
    • d) bicarbonate
    • -the rate of carbonic acid formation depends on the amount of CO2 in the solution, but the carbonic anhydrase is what catalyzes the CO2 and H2O to form bicarbonate (HCO3) and hydrogen, so it's the H2CO3 and H+ that wold be affected the most by inhibition of carbonic anhydrase
  22. Functions of plasma proteins include
    a) body temperature regulation
    b) regulation of osmotic pressure
    c) transport of oxygen and CO2
    d) serving as a source of energy for metabolism
    • b) regulation of osmotic pressure
    • -albumin in particular is a major contributor to osmotic pressure.
    • -also, plasma proteins function in attacking pathogens and transporting globulins
  23. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called
    A) chemotaxis
    B) margination
    C) intrusion
    D) diapedisis
    D) diapedisis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Iron
    A) prevents carbon monoxide from binding to hemoglobin
    B) is a plasma coagulation factor
    C) is the binding side for CO2 on the hemoglobin molecule
    D) is needed to produce hemoglobin
    D) is needed to produce hemoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Erythropoietin
    A) is produced in response to increased BP
    B) is found both in the plasma and inside RBC's
    C) is a product of the kidney
    D) inhibits the production of erythrocytes
    C) is a product of the kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The most numerous of the leukocytes is the
    A) basophil
    B) lymphocyte
    C) neutrophil
    D) eosinophil
    C) neutrophil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Platelets
    a) are cell fragments
    b) play a role in blood clotting
    c) have surface molecules that attach to collagen
    d) all of these
    • d) all of these
    • -attachment to collagen helps to form the platelet plug
  28. Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the
    A) R ventricle
    B) L atrium
    C) L ventricle
    D) R atrium
    B) L atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. If the connections between the vagus nerve and the heart are severed, the
    a) heart will beat slower
    b) stroke volume will decrease
    c) cardiac output will increase
    d) all of these
  30. -vagus nerve releases acetylcholine and is parasympathetic (rest and repose), which allows the body to relax and decrease BPM and stroke volume
  31. Which of the following would be greater?
    a) EDV when the heart rate is 150 BMP
    b) EDV when the heart rate is 90 BMP
    b) EDV when the heart rate is 90 BMP
  32. During the ejection phase of the cardiac cycle, blood exits the left ventricle through the
    A) aorta
    B) coronary sinus
    C) superior vena cava
    D) pulmonary vein
    A) aorta
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. EDV-ESV is equal to
    A) venous return
    B) cardiac reserve
    C) stroke volume
    D) cardiac output
    C) stroke volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Precapillary sphincters
    A) are found in the tunica media
    B) carry blood under high pressure
    C) serve as valves in veins
    D) control the blood flow into capillary beds
    D) control the blood flow into capillary beds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Complement proteins
    A) may cause the release of interferon
    B) can form holes in the plasma membrane of target cells
    C) are on the surface of macrophages
    D) are hormones found in the blood
    B) can form holes in the plasma membrane of target cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Interferon
    a) directly attacks viruses
    b) protects cells that have been invaded by viruses
    c) increases vasular permeability
    d) is a protein that interferes with virus production and infection
    • d) is a protein that interferes with virus production and infection
    • -also stimulates the activities of macrophages and NK cells
  37. The inflammatory response
    A) stimulates erythrocytes to leave the blood
    B) prevents the spread of infection
    C) all of these
    D) delays healing of damaged tissues
    B) prevents the spread of infection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. _______ are part of cell-mediated immunity while ____ are part of antibody-mediated immunity
    A) T cells, B cells
    B) macrophages, antibodies
    C) B cells, NK cells
    D) antibodies, antigens
    A) T cells, B cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. When blood pressure decreases,
    A) aldosterone decreases
    B) epinephrine increases
    C) all of these
    D) renin secretion increases
    D) renin secretion increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The secondary or memory response
    A) does not protect the body after the second exposure
    B) provides better protection than the primary response
    C) produces different antibodies than those produced in the primary response
    D) is less effective in antibody production
    B) provides better protection than the primary response
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Active natural immunity occurs when
    A) a person is vaccinated
    B) antibodies pass from a pregnant mother to her fetus
    C) an individual develops a disease
    D) antibodies are injected into a host
    C) an individual develops a disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following is a passageway for both air and food?
    A) bronchus
    B) larynx
    C) pharynx
    D) trachea
    C) pharynx
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The serous membranes that surround the lungs are called the
    A) mucous membranes
    B) pleural membranes
    C) pulmonary membranes
    D) synovial membranes
    B) pleural membranes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Oxygen and CO2 are exchenges across the respiratory membrane by process of
    A) active transport
    B) filtration
    C) osmosis
    D) diffusion
    D) diffusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The Bohr effect refers to the
    A) effect of pH on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
    B) physical laws governing the solubility of gases into fluids
    C) mechanism involved in diffusion of nitrogen into the blood
    D) chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate in the blood
    A) effect of pH on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Gas dissovles in fluid in accordance with
    A) Henry's law
    B) Starling's law
    C) Boyle's law
    D) Murphy's law
    A) Henry's law
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The chloride shift refers to the
    A) effect of chloride ions on hydrogen ion diffusion from RBCs
    B) effect of chloride ions on oxygen dissociation curve
    C) exchange of chloride ions for carbon dioxide across alveolar cell membranes
    D) exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the RBC membrane
    D) exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the RBC membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The major regulator of respiration is the plasma concentration of
    A) carbon dioxide
    B) oxygen
    C) nitrogen
    D) water vapor
    A) carbon dioxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Lacteals
    A) all of these
    B) carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries
    C) secrete digestive enzymes
    D) increase the surface area of intestinal mucosa
    B) carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Beginning at the lumen, the sequence of layers of the digestive tract wall is
    A) muscularis, lamina propria, submucosa, mucosa
    B) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
    C) peritoneum, submucosa, mucosa, lamina propria
    D) submucosa, mucosa, serous membrane, muscularis
    B) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. The gastric phase of gastric secretion
    A) is mediated by impulses on the sympathetic nerves
    B) is triggered by taste, sight, tought, or smell of food
    C) decreases the release of gastrin in the stomach
    D) leads to the greatest volume of gastric secretion
    D) leads to the greatest volume of gastric secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The gallbladder contracts in response to the hormone
    A) cholecystokinin
    B) gastrin
    C) enterokinin
    D) secretin
    A) cholecystokinin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following helps to keep blood nutrients at normal levels six to eight hours after a meal?
    A) parasympathetic stimulation of the pancreas
    B) increased production of insulin by the pancreas
    C) increased glucose uptake by the cells
    D) breakdown of glycogen in the liver releasing glucose
    D) breakdown of glycogen in the liver releasing glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. A hormone that promotes the conversion of lipids to glucose and the formation of gylcogen in the liver is
    -skip-
    -skip-
  55. Enterokinase
    A) triggers the release of bile from the gallbladder
    B) is a hormone
    C) increases duodenal activity
    D) activates trypsinogen
    D) activates trypsinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The pancreas produces
    A) lipase
    B) bicarbonate
    C) glucagon
    D) all of these
    D) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Chief cells in the gastric mucosa secrete
    A) gastrin
    B) HCl
    C) pepsinogen
    D) all of these
    C) pepsinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. In response to cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
    A) rich in bicarbonate
    B) all of these
    C) rich in bile
    D) rich in enzymes
    B) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. In the electron transport chain
    A) NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to coenzymes
    B) all of these
    C) ATP is formed
    D) oxidativve phosporylation takes place
    B) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. During the absorptive state
    A) skeletal muscle breaks down glycogen
    B) all of these
    C) adipocytes contribute fatty acids to the circulation
    D) the liver forms glycogen
    D) the liver forms glycogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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