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what is Latin America
- countries that were once colonized by the Spanish, Portuguese in the New world
- includes most of central America, South America and Carribean
What constitutes being Latino(a) vs hispanic
- both relate to colonialism
- latino(a)-implies new world influences
- Hispanic- stresses spain influence
Legacies of colonialism
- 1.establishment of extractive industries- extract wealth(mining)
- 2. establishment of large plantations- sugar cane-> wealth to large landowners.
- 3.Establishment of peon/slave labor-(indians and Africans
- 4. Catholic church- used as a reason for conquest(save souls) and conscience of empire.
- 5. "Colombian exchange"-mixing of old and new world (coffee and cattle for disease corn and chocolate)
- 6.Unequal distrib.of land-spanish crown granted settlers right of land and indians
- 7. Unequal dist. of wealth- rich very rich poor very poort
- 8. Social Hierachy based on eth & race- limited access to land ownership and political rep.
- 9. Patriarchal family-wealth->eldest male women primary role of daughter and mother
- 10.emergence of "mestizo"-mixing of euro.,African and Spanish blood.
the mixing of beliefs and tradition between African and Catholic religions
What is mestizo, creole & ladino
- Mestizo:mixing of European, African and Spanish blood
- Creole:Spaniards born in the new world
- ladino:"acculturated" indios tend to be elite
Spanish crown granted Spainards over Indians (& defacto to their land)
plantations vs haciendas
- plantations: African slave labor geared toward export
- hacienda: peoned land used for internal consumption
indigenous comm. usually in undesirable area often retained pre Colombian land relations
Land reform as it relates to Latin America
- large haciendas were to broken up and returned to smallholders to try and promote equality because of the concern for peasant "rebellions"
- unsucessful because the rich would not disnfranchise themselves and the land was of poor quality
Latin Amer. economies in 19th and 20th centuries
- 19th-Early Independence, establishment of states, growth of mestizo populations, power struggle between "liberals" & "conservatives", and the stagnation & slow promotion of capitalism.
- 20th-economic resurgence-open to free trade & foreign investment
began in the 1980s :World bank imposed economic policies that encouraged the repayment of debt by reducing gov. spending(schools,health-care,subsidies)
policies put into place for structural adjustment that promoted free trade,free markets,no gov. intervention in markets and the privatization of industries(petroleum,schools)
- populist presidents reemerged as a response to structural adjustment and neoliberism
- adopt politics that skew public policies to help benefit the poor
- prompting social welfare
region of refuge
places where indigenous people fled to in colonial period-land was not prosperous
diffusion vs acculturation
- diffusion-the transmission of culture traits from one group to another (guns,goods,bead)
- acculturation-long term intensive contact resulting in changes for both groups
Gov of Brazil & roles of development
- Military dictatorship trying to justify itself, huge population of landless peasants sent to Amazon to allow opportunity
- Gov subsidized cattle ranching because wanted to send brazilians to Acre to prevent Acre from becoming independent
Stakeholders and the affects
- Indians-face extinction or integration constantky resetteled every few yrs (hard to demarcate land)
- loggers-land claims by clearing bankrupt sustainable develop. cut and run
- miners-rough crowd, dangerous wrk, indep or corp. causes pollution to water
- ranchers-significant deforestation, not sustainable
- rubber tappers-organized in base comm.
- idealist-liberation theory(communism,some killed)
- "river people"-w/o FUNAI protectionfarm on flood plain poisened by mercury from gold extraction.
sustainable v unsustainable
- sustainable-based on 3 ideas economically sound, ecologically balanced, and socially "just"
- using Catholicism for social change
- dont turn the other cheek
- non violent efforts to attain rights through BASE COMMUNITIES->communism