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2013-04-17 12:48:46
midddddterm MLAS midterm

midterm for latin american society
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  1. what is Latin America
    • countries that were once colonized by the Spanish, Portuguese in the New world
    • includes most of central America, South America and Carribean
  2. What constitutes being Latino(a) vs hispanic
    • both relate to colonialism
    • latino(a)-implies new world influences
    • Hispanic- stresses spain influence
  3. Legacies of colonialism
    • 1.establishment of extractive industries- extract wealth(mining)
    • 2. establishment of large plantations- sugar cane-> wealth to large landowners.
    • 3.Establishment of peon/slave labor-(indians and Africans
    • 4. Catholic church- used as a reason for conquest(save souls) and conscience of empire.
    • 5. "Colombian exchange"-mixing of old and new world (coffee and cattle for disease corn and chocolate)
    • 6.Unequal distrib.of land-spanish crown granted settlers right of land and indians
    • 7. Unequal dist. of wealth- rich very rich poor very poort
    • 8. Social Hierachy based on eth & race- limited access to land ownership and political rep.
    • 9. Patriarchal family-wealth->eldest male women primary role of daughter and mother
    • 10.emergence of "mestizo"-mixing of euro.,African and Spanish blood.
  4. Syncretism
    the mixing of beliefs and tradition between African and Catholic religions
  5. What is mestizo, creole & ladino
    • Mestizo:mixing of European, African and Spanish blood
    • Creole:Spaniards born in the new world
    • ladino:"acculturated" indios tend to be elite
  6. Define Economienda
    Spanish crown granted Spainards over Indians (& defacto to their land)
  7. plantations vs haciendas
    • plantations: African slave labor geared toward export
    • hacienda: peoned land used for internal consumption
  8. smallholders
    indigenous comm. usually in undesirable area often retained pre Colombian land relations
  9. Land reform as it relates to Latin America
    • large haciendas were to broken up and returned to smallholders to try and promote equality because of the concern for peasant "rebellions"
    • unsucessful because the rich would not disnfranchise themselves and the land was of poor quality
  10. Latin Amer. economies in 19th and 20th centuries
    • 19th-Early Independence, establishment of states, growth of mestizo populations, power struggle between "liberals" & "conservatives", and the stagnation & slow promotion of capitalism.
    • 20th-economic resurgence-open to free trade & foreign investment
  11. structural adjustment
    began in the 1980s :World bank imposed economic policies that encouraged the repayment of debt by reducing gov. spending(schools,health-care,subsidies)
  12. Neoliberalism
    policies put into place for structural adjustment that promoted free trade,free markets,no gov. intervention in markets and the privatization of industries(petroleum,schools)
  13. Populism
    • populist presidents reemerged as a response to structural adjustment and neoliberism¬†
    • adopt politics that skew public policies to help benefit the poor
    • prompting social welfare
  14. region of refuge
    places where indigenous people fled to in colonial period-land was not prosperous
  15. diffusion vs acculturation
    • diffusion-the transmission of culture traits from one group to another (guns,goods,bead)
    • acculturation-long term intensive contact resulting in changes for both groups
  16. Gov of Brazil & roles of development
    • Military dictatorship trying to justify itself, huge population of landless peasants sent to Amazon to allow opportunity
    • Gov subsidized cattle ranching because wanted to send brazilians to Acre to prevent Acre from becoming independent
  17. Stakeholders and the affects
    • Indians-face extinction or integration constantky resetteled every few yrs (hard to demarcate land)
    • loggers-land claims by clearing bankrupt sustainable develop. cut and run
    • miners-rough crowd, dangerous wrk, indep or corp. causes pollution to water
    • ranchers-significant deforestation, not sustainable
    • rubber tappers-organized in base comm.
    • idealist-liberation theory(communism,some killed)
    • "river people"-w/o FUNAI protectionfarm on flood plain poisened by mercury from gold extraction.
    • African
  18. sustainable v unsustainable
    • sustainable-based on 3 ideas economically sound, ecologically balanced, and socially "just"
    • unsustainable-
  19. liberation theology
    • using Catholicism for social change
    • dont turn the other cheek
    • non violent efforts to attain rights through BASE COMMUNITIES->communism