Card Set Information
midddddterm MLAS midterm
midterm for latin american society
what is Latin America
countries that were once colonized by the Spanish, Portuguese in the New world
includes most of central America, South America and Carribean
What constitutes being Latino(a) vs hispanic
both relate to colonialism
latino(a)-implies new world influences
Hispanic- stresses spain influence
Legacies of colonialism
1.establishment of extractive industries- extract wealth(mining)
2. establishment of large plantations- sugar cane-> wealth to large landowners.
3.Establishment of peon/slave labor-(indians and Africans
4. Catholic church- used as a reason for conquest(save souls) and conscience of empire.
5. "Colombian exchange"-mixing of old and new world (coffee and cattle for disease corn and chocolate)
6.Unequal distrib.of land-spanish crown granted settlers right of land and indians
7. Unequal dist. of wealth- rich very rich poor very poort
8. Social Hierachy based on eth & race- limited access to land ownership and political rep.
9. Patriarchal family-wealth->eldest male women primary role of daughter and mother
10.emergence of "mestizo"-mixing of euro.,African and Spanish blood.
the mixing of beliefs and tradition between African and Catholic religions
What is mestizo, creole & ladino
Mestizo:mixing of European, African and Spanish blood
Creole:Spaniards born in the new world
ladino:"acculturated" indios tend to be elite
Spanish crown granted Spainards over Indians (& defacto to their land)
plantations vs haciendas
: African slave labor geared toward export
: peoned land used for internal consumption
indigenous comm. usually in undesirable area often retained pre Colombian land relations
Land reform as it relates to Latin America
large haciendas were to broken up and returned to smallholders to try and promote equality because of the concern for peasant "rebellions"
unsucessful because the rich would not disnfranchise themselves and the land was of poor quality
Latin Amer. economies in 19th and 20th centuries
19th-Early Independence, establishment of states, growth of mestizo populations, power struggle between "liberals" & "conservatives", and the stagnation & slow promotion of capitalism.
20th-economic resurgence-open to free trade & foreign investment
began in the 1980s :World bank imposed economic policies that encouraged the repayment of debt by reducing gov. spending(schools,health-care,subsidies)
policies put into place for structural adjustment that promoted free trade,free markets,no gov. intervention in markets and the privatization of industries(petroleum,schools)
populist presidents reemerged as a response to structural adjustment and neoliberism
adopt politics that skew public policies to help benefit the poor
prompting social welfare
region of refuge
places where indigenous people fled to in colonial period-land was not prosperous
diffusion vs acculturation
diffusion-the transmission of culture traits from one group to another (guns,goods,bead)
acculturation-long term intensive contact resulting in changes for both groups
Gov of Brazil & roles of development
Military dictatorship trying to justify itself, huge population of landless peasants sent to Amazon to allow opportunity
Gov subsidized cattle ranching because wanted to send brazilians to Acre to prevent Acre from becoming independent
Stakeholders and the affects
Indians-face extinction or integration constantky resetteled every few yrs (hard to demarcate land)
loggers-land claims by clearing bankrupt sustainable develop. cut and run
miners-rough crowd, dangerous wrk, indep or corp. causes pollution to water
ranchers-significant deforestation, not sustainable
rubber tappers-organized in base comm.
idealist-liberation theory(communism,some killed)
"river people"-w/o FUNAI protectionfarm on flood plain poisened by mercury from gold extraction.
sustainable v unsustainable
sustainable-based on 3 ideas economically sound, ecologically balanced, and socially "just"
using Catholicism for social change
dont turn the other cheek
non violent efforts to attain rights through BASE COMMUNITIES->communism