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Cow A ingests a diet that is long stemmed hay, this diet has a particle size of at least 6 inches, cow B has a diet with maximal particle size of .5 inches, which if either cow will have a nonlinear flow of ingesta through the digestive system? Explain.
Cow A because it will have to regurgitate to chew more.
Cow A ingests a diet that is long stemmed hay, this diet has a particle
size of at least 6 inches, cow B has a diet with maximal particle size
of .5 inches, which cow will have the longest time from ingestion to defecation? EXPLAIN.
Cow A, because it has a larger time span due to the regurgitation, and due to the digestion of fiber.
in a pre-weaned lamb, which compartment of the stomach is the smallest based on actual volume.
could be the omasum or the reticulum could argue either would need to remark on diet and function of both
in a pre-weaned lamb, which compartment of the stomach is the smallest in regaurds to relative volume?
the omasum as it is only about 10% of the total volume.
defend or refute. eventual development of volume and function of the rumen in a lamb is largely a function of weaning from liquid to solid diet. EXPLAIN.
REFUTE. development of the rumen is dependent on the introduction of forage and the introduction of bacteria and microorganisms (from forage), not the introduction of a solid diet as grains will not really cause the rumen to develop.
why is it necessary for neonatal mammalian livestock to achieve passive immunity from colostrum?
mammalian livestock are born without antibodies, and they do not start to form their own antibodies until they are more than 6 weeks of age.
define passive immunity without references to any mammary secretion.
movement of preformed antibodies to an animal.
what structures are responsible (in a neonate) for achieving passive immunity?
esophygeal grove, gap junctions, molecules stick to microvilli that then move to crypt for absorption (endocytosis of antibody).
indicate two things that managment must do to ensure that passive immunity is achieved. EXPLAIN each.
- they must time the feeding of colostrum as this has a lot of the preformed anitbodies in it
- they must also make sure that the maternity area is sanitary to ensure no risks to health of either the neonate or its mother.
name the gender, location, and describe the function of the seminal vesicles.
male, vas deferens to the urethra, adds fluid to the semen
name the gender, location, and describe the function of the leydig cells.
male, testicular intersticium, produce testosterone
name the gender, location, and describe the function of the cotyledon.
female, fetal membrane chorion, fetal portion of the placenta.
name the gender, location, and describe the function of the endometrium.
female, medial uterus, maternal placenta
name the gender, location, and describe the function of the tunica albuginea.
male, lateral testes, heavy connective tissue coat around testes
where is the broad ligament located and what is its purpose?
it is continuous with the parietal peritoneum, it has a double walled structure that houses vasculature, nerves, and lymphatics, and "supports" the reproductive tract in females.
what are the three sections of the broad ligament and where do they insert?
- mesometrium- inserts along the lateral aspects of the uterine horns
- mesosalpinx- inserts along the oviduct
- mesovarium- inserts along the hilus of an ovary
name two factors that are associated with bloat.
- diet has high soluble protein
- diet has low fiber
excluding all diet and feed issues, name two factors that are associated with the occurrence of displaced abomasum.
- close to parturition
- systemic infection leads to accumulation of histamine and decreased tone
defend or refute. compared to torsion, vulvulos is the most consequential event associated with displaced abomasum.
DEFEND. with vulvulos there is frequently trauma to the vessels and nerves.
excluding hardware and inadequate forage/fiber, what nutritional management will reduce the likelihood for most of the physical abnormalities of the digestive tract. EXPLAIN.
feed total mixed rations, change consumption gradually, not abruptly, and provide adequate space at feeding area to reduce crowding. Diet should equal net requirements.
describe/sketch the contour of the ventral udder and teat posture associated with failure of the medial suspensory ligaments.
- normal teats will point downward, and will have a cleft in the middle where the ligaments are at work.
- with failure of median suspensory ligaments, the cleft is lost and the teats will point outward to a more lateral position.
name the gender, describe the location and function of the gubernaculum.
male, spermatic cord, pulls testes into scrotum (temperature regulation)
name the gender, describe the location and function of the mesosalpinx.
female, branch of broad ligament, supports oviduct.
name the gender, describe the location and function of the caruncle.
female ruminant, enodmetrium, maternal placenta.
name the gender, describe the location and function of the sertoli cells.
male, seminiferous tubules, nurse sperm cells, and release estrodiol and inhibin.
name the gender, describe the location and function of the internal bifurcation.
female, posterior uterine horn, separate left and right horn.
in livestock males why is it important for the temperature of the testes to be cooler than the core body temperature?
to allow for successful meiosis.
explain the function of the tunica dartos and the external cremaster.
regulate the distance of the testes form the animal for thermoregulation.
in which species is the pampiniform plexus most important. EXPLAIN.
stallion and boars, they cannot move the inguinal testes
what is the practical value of a short scrotum bull? EXPLAIN.
leads to sustained libido which is an aid to detect estrus. (increase success of AI)
name a species of male livestock in which erection is most important. EXPLAIN.
Stallions as they have less rigid connective tissue and require increased arterial blood flow to enlarge penis.
in a female reproductive tract, describe the ovulation fossa and name a species where it will be found.
equine- it is a permanent opening in the serosa in the parietal peitoneum.
what are the three fetal membranes and location?
- Amnion- closest to fetus
- Allantois- intermediate between fetus and uterus
- Chorion- closest to and attached to the endometrium chorion fuses to allantois after first trimester.
what are two key intrafollicular events for continued growth and function, avoiding atresia of an ovarian follicle?
- mitosis of granulosa cells
- secretion of estrodiol
- (both are linked granulosa cells take testosterone and make estrodiol)
for a corpus luteum what is the major type of cell and what is the major hormone produced?
luteal cell produces progesterone.
among pregnant ruminant livestockdefine placenta. EXPLAIN.
Placenta is a function word describing interactions between fetal membranes and maternal membranes. placenta is total placentone action. placentone is the interaction between a caruncle (maternal) and a cotyledon (fetal).
defend or refute. the predominant hormonal product from a healthy growing follicle is an androgen, some form of testosterone. EXPLAIN.
REFUTE. accumulation of testosterone around a follicle causes atresia, growing follicle has granulosa cells which put out an estrogen usually estradiol.
during the life of a female, when would there definitely not be a corpus luteum present in the ovaries?
prepubescent, and early postpartum
defend or refute. a corpus hemorrhagicum is not an endocrine tissue or gland. EXPLAIN.
REFUTE. corpus hemorrhagicum secretes progesterone which means it is and endocrine tissue/gland
excluding exchange of nutrients, waste, oxygen and carbon dioxide, name two functions of a fetal placental unit.
- immune barrier for fetus
- decreased physical trauma
excluding testosterone and any androgen, name two hormonal products of the testes.
- inhibin (both are product of sertoli cells)
as a result of milk ejection, describe the movement of milk.
alveolar lumen into ductal system.
a mute foal needs/wants to suckle a blind dam. to stimulate milk ejection, describe the sequence of structures and the types of signals that ultimately stimulate milk ejection. exclude intramammary events.
teat, nerve - central nervous system, nerve - brain, nerve - posterior pituitary, endocrine - blood
within a mammary gland, name three targets and action for the hormone that causes milk ejection.
- target, action
- myoepithelium, contraction
- capillary, increased blood flow
- terminal duct, dialate
what are the broad functions of the reproductive system of females, and what tissue/s perform them?
- gametogenesis- ovarian follicle
- copulation- vaginal epithelium
- endocrine- grannulosa, theca, luteal
- nutritive- endometrium
contrast the reproductive system of a mare and a cow.
- uterine body: mare>cow
- horn length: cow>mare
- horn seperation: mare- very prominent cow- almost none (internal bifurcation)
- internal bifercation: cow- very prominent mare: inexistant
defend or refute. the cervix of all livestock females has a single os cervix and is cartilage. so technique for AI is similar among species. EXPLAIN.
REFUTE. techniques for AI are determined by the shape of the posterior os cervix and it differs between species.
describe the structure and function of an ovulation fossa name an example species.
it is the permanent opening in an ovarian serosa near the hilus. all oocytes ovulated exit the ovary through the fossa so example species is all females of species
ectopic pregnancies (in abdomen not uterus) are rare but do occur in humans and livestock. excluding fertilization, use reproductive anatomy to explain how ectopic pregnancies occur.
the oviduct is not contiguous (attached) to the ovary. sometimes embryo moves anterior into abdomen.
explain why livestock have no humoral (blood borne) immunity at birth.
livestock have a very restrictive placenta. no antibodies transfer from dam to fetus.
it is possible to achieve immunity in neonataal lambs and calves, describe the features of the digestive tract that allow neonates to achieve passive immunity.
- esophageal groove
- gap junctions between adjacent interstitial epithelium
- apical surface of epithelium is sticky/adhesive
in neonatal livestock, what factors determine extent and quality to achieve passive immunity?
- time after birth colostrum is ingested
- quality of colostrum
- sanitation of maternity area
list all components that are required to build a tertiary ovarian follicle.
- follicular fluid
- grannulosa cells
- thecal cells
defend or refute. a corpus luteum will ovulate only after an animal achieves puberty. EXPLAIN.
Corpus Luteum is post-ovulatory structure and cannot ovulate
what types of cells are the parents for luteal cells
grannulosa cells and thecal cells differentiate into luteal cells
what component(s) is/are present among all types of ovarian follicles
oocyte and grannulosa cells
what structure provides support for the mammary system? describe each structure and indicate where the structure inserts
- median suspensory ligament- medial and ventral mammary
- lateral suspensory ligament- lateral mammary
what aspects of internal mammary anatomy is created from the suspensory ligament system.
lobules and lobes
assume failure of the more flexible, less rigid structure for mammary support. describe the effect on external confirmation of mammary glands and posture of teats.
ventral crease disappears - teats tilt laterally
describe the mammary system of a bovine. include numbers of teats, streak canals, teat cisterns, gland cisterns, glands, and location in order.
4, 4, 4, 4, 4, inguinal
describe the mammary system of swine. include numbers of teats,
streak canals, teat cisterns, gland cisterns, glands, and location in
- 14*, 24, 24, 24, 14*, abdominal
- the star is because the glands can vary from 8 to 18.
describe the mammary system of ovine (sheep). include numbers of teats,
streak canals, teat cisterns, gland cisterns, glands, and location in
2, 2, 2, 2, 2, inguinal
describe the mammary system of equine. include numbers of teats,
streak canals, teat cisterns, gland cisterns, glands, and location in
2, 4, 4, 4, 4, inguinal
a red blood cell in the aorta ultimately perfuses a mammary capillary or AV anastomosis. defend or refute. even in the aorta, it is determined whether this cell will go through anterior posterior aspect of the mammary system. EXPLAIN
REFUTE. from aorta, arterial system has several branches that will determine whether red blood cell goes anterior or posterior
after the capillary, describe all general options for this cell to return to the heart?
- anterior- subcutaneous abdominal vein
- dorsal- perineal
within a mammary gland, what is the first structure that milk contacts but has no role in the synthesis of milk?
terminal or capillary duct
milk ejection involves the oxytocin on: (name target cell and response of cell/action of oxytocin)
- myoepithelial cell- contract
- terminal duct- dilate
- alveolar capillary- increase flow
in relation to the abdomen, what is the location of the cecum?
between small and large intestine
compared to dairy, why do beef cows virtually never experience displaced abomasum?
less severe qualitative changes in diet at parturition (beef cattle not milked like dairy).
what is the ultimate result with untreated bloat. EXPLAIN.
death due to suffocation. paralysis of the diaphragm (no room to move into the abdomen)
we discuss several physical abnormalities of the digestive tract and numerous associative factors. excluding hardware, discuss one specific management practice that will exert a broad prophylactic (preventative) effect?
insure that diets have minimal effective fiber. dietary change should be gradual not abrupt.
fetal and maternal fusion that allows for bidirectional exchange
define cotyledon and name a species that has these structures.
ruminants. cotyledon is a fetal structure
explain why livestock fetuses are protected very well against physical trauma.
fetus in two fluid filled compartments- amnion and allantois
where is urine from a fetus stored during gestation?
what structure delivers urine to the allantois?
urachas- a tubule within unbilical cord
defend or refute. assume a similar forage-based diet for a horse and sheep. flow of ingesta is definitely unidirectional in horses but is not unidirectional in sheep.
REFUTE. in sheep whether flow is unidirectional depends on particle size of diet. if too large to pass into omasum- regurgitation and chewing
name and describe the process or mechanism that powers movement of ingesta.
peristalsis- smooth muscle contracts behind ingesta and relaxes in front of ingesta
what are two distinct but related functions of the reticulum?
- sort according to particle size
- form boluses to regurgitate
what is the function of papillae in the rumen?
absorb volatile fatty acids from fermentation
describe the qualitative features of a diet that will increase length and diameter of ruminal papillae
increased grain and starch- there is more propionate which stimulates development of papillae