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2013-02-12 21:57:16
Chapter Five

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  1. emphasizes the ability to bring about an intended outcome; highlights the positive and constructive aspects of power 
    "Power to" Approach
  2. increases people's capacity to bring about an intended outcome; the focus of much feminist scholarship on power
  3. Who is the person who said that "power is the capacity to change and empower oneself and others"
    Virginia Held
  4. seeks to empower an oppressed group through a combination of economic assistance and educational programs 
    Bangladesh Rural Advancement (BRAC)
  5. The best-known approach to empowerment 
  6. involves bringing people together to identify common goals and work to achieve them 
  7. involves reaching outside your immediate circle of contacts to find allies 
  8. the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others; focuses on overcoming opposition or dominating others
    "Power Over" Approach
  9. To get people's compliance by convicting them of the correctness of your position and goals
  10. To encourage people's compliance by offering a positive incentive 
  11. To force compliance by threatening, intimidating, pressuring, or harming someone
  12. An essential part of social relationships at every level of social life
  13. What are the 6 bases of power in small groups and organizations?
    • 1. Reward Power
    • 2. Coercive Power
    • 3. Legitimate Power
    • 4. Referent Power
    • 5. Expert Power
    • 6. Informational Power
  14. Specific strategies people use to influence others in everyday life and vary along three key dimensions
    Power tactics
  15. Power tactic that is forceful, direct, or harsh. People employing them use economic rewards and other tangible outcomes, and even threats
    Hard Tactics
  16. Power tactic that focuses on relationships. People employing soft tactics make use of collaboration and friendship to achieve a goal. 
    Soft Tactic 
  17. Power tactic that appeals to logic and includes bargaining and rational persuasion 
    Rational Tactic
  18. Power tactic that includes emotional appeals
    Non-Rational Tactic
  19. Power tactic that does not require cooperation to initiate they include demands, orders, or disengagement
    Unilateral Tactic
  20. Power tactic that involves give-and-take, as in negotiations and discussions
    Bilateral Tactic
  21. Three of the most important purposes to which power is applied are
    • 1. economic
    • 2. political
    • 3. cultural
  22. Power that allocates resources
    economic power
  23. Power that makes rules and decisions
    Political power
  24. Power that defines reality
    cultural power
  25. Activist who argued that class in power maintains its dominance not simply through the use of force, but also through manipulation of ideas
    Antonio Gramsci
  26. Exists when those in power have successfully spread their ideas-- and marginalized alternative viewpoints-- so that their perspectives and interest are accepted widely as being universal and true
  27. The person who made an important distinction between legitimate and illegitimate power
    Max Weber
  28. Voluntarily accepted by those who are affected
    Legitimate Power
  29. Relies on force or coercion to generate obedience
    Illegitimate Power
  30. has legitimacy because of compliance with well-established cultural practices
    Traditional Authority 
  31. Has legitimacy because it is based on established laws, rules, and procedures
    Rational-legal authority
  32. Power who legitimacy is derived from the extraordinary personal characteristics of an individual leader, which inspire loyalty and devotion
    Charismatic Authority
  33. the unequal distribution of resources among groups of people
  34. What is the major type of inequality in society?
    Uneven distribution of money and economic resources
  35. A group of people who share a roughly similar economic position and lifestyle
  36. Who highlighted the world of work and analyzed classes as groups of people who share a common relationship to the means of production?
    Karl Marx
  37. A special advantage or benefit that not everyone enjoys
  38. Who developed standpoint theory?
    Dorothy Smith
  39. Questions taken-for-granted assumptions about society by looking at it from multiple viewpoints
    Standpoint theory
  40. The place from which a person views the world
  41. What structures a person's standpoint?
    His or her social location, which includes race, class, gender, and sexual orientation
  42. Made up of social structures and cultural norms that create and maintain inequality by ranking people into hierarchy of groups and receive unequal resources
    Stratification System
  43. All Stratification systems share 3 key elements:
    • 1. the unequal distribution of valued resources
    • 2. distinct groups that make up a society's strata
    • 3. an ideology that explains and justifies inequality
  44. Stratification systems that are closed; they are rigid, making it almost impossible for an individual to move from one stratum to another
    Ascribed Status
  45. Stratification systems that are open; it is possible for an individual to achieve social mobility
    Achieved Statuses
  46. Movement from one stratum to another
    Social Mobility
  47. System of beliefs that helps define and explain the world and justifies the existence of inequality
  48. features stratification determined by economic position, which results from a combination of individual achievement and family of birth
    Class System
  49. idea that success is based on merit, not inherited advantage
  50. emphasizes the collective good and economic equality as coordinated by the government
    Socialist ideology
  51. Totalitarian governments that typically downplay the existence of inequality
    State Socialism
  52. Combines a government accountable to the electorate with an economy that includes considerable state intervention
    Democratic Socialism
  53. Male domination through social institutions and cultural practices