Biology II test 2

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Shelby.Borders
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200198
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Biology II test 2
Updated:
2013-02-20 15:25:03
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Bio
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  1. Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
    A. tracheid—vascular tissue
    B. guard cell—dermal tissue
    C. companion cell—ground tissue
    D. palisade mesophyll—ground tissue
    E. root hair—dermal tissue
    C. companion cell—ground tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. In a root, a vessel element completes its development in which area of growth? 
    A. zone of cell division
    B. root cap
    C. zone of elongation
    D. apical meristem
    E. zone of differentiation
    E. zone of differentiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Heartwood and sapwood consist of 
    A. bark
    B.secondary phloem
    C.periderm.
    D.cork.
    E. secondary xylem
    E. secondary xylem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is not part of an older tree's bark? 
    A. lenticels
    B. cork
    C. secondary phloem
    D. secondary xylem
    E. cork cambium
    D. secondary xylem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to the mature vegetative phase is often revealed by 
    A. the activation of floral meristem identity genes.
    B.the formation of lateral roots
    C.a change in the orientation of preprophase bands and cytoplasmic microtubules in lateral meristems
    D. a change in the morphology of the leaves produced
    E.the initiation of secondary growth
    D. a change in the morphology of the leaves produced
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following arise from meristematic activity?
    A. secondary xylem
    B.leaves
    C.dermal tissue
    D.tubers
    E.all of the above
    E.all of the above
  7. Pinching off the tops of snapdragons causes the plants to make many more flowers than they would if left alone. Why does the removal of the top cause more flowers to form? 
    A. Removal of an apical meristem causes a phase transition from vegetative to floral development.
    B. Removal of an apical meristem causes cell division to become disorganized, as in the fass mutant of Arabidopsis
    C.Removal of an apical meristem causes outgrowth of lateral buds that produce extra branches, which ultimately produce flowers
    D.Removal of an apical meristem allows the periderm to produce new lateral branches.
    E.Removal of an apical meristem allows more nutrients to be delivered to floral meristems
    C.Removal of an apical meristem causes outgrowth of lateral buds that produce extra branches, which ultimately produce flowers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of these are not produced by the vascular cambium? 
    A. sclerenchyma cell
    B.sieve-tube element
    C.sparenchyma cells
    D.root hairs
    E.vessel elements
    D.root hairs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The type of mature cell that a particular embryonic plant cell will become appears to be determined mainly by 
    A. the cell's final position in a developing organ
    B.the cell's age
    C. the selective loss of genes.
    D.the cell's pattern of migration
    E.the cell's particular meristematic lineage.
    A. the cell's final position in a developing organ
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Based on the ABC model, what would be the structure of a flower that had normal expression of genes A and C and expression of gene B in all four whorls? 
    A. sepal-sepal-carpel-carpel
    B. sepal-carpel-carpel-sepal
    C. carpel-carpel-carpel-carpel
    D. carpel-petal-petal-carpel
    E. stamen-stamen-petal-petal
    E. stamen-stamen-petal-petal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following does not affect self-shading?
    A.stem thickness
    B.self-pruning
    C.  leaf area
    D.leaf orientation
    E. indexphyllotaxy
    A.stem thickness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What would enhance water uptake by a plant cell? 
    A.decreased ψ of the surrounding solution
    B an increase in pressure exerted by the cell wall
    C.mthe loss of solutes from the cell
    D.man increase in ψ of the cytoplasm
    E. positive pressure on the surrounding solution
    E. positive pressure on the surrounding solution
  13. A plant cell with a ψS of –0.65 MPa maintains a constant volume when bathed in a solution that has a ψS of –0.30 MPa and is in an open container. The cell has a 
    A. ψP of +0.65 MPa.
    B. ψ of 0 MPa.
    C. ψP of +0.35 MPa.
    D. ψ of –0.65 MPa.
    E. ψP of +0.30 MPa.
    C. ψP of +0.35 MPa.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which structure or compartment is not part of the apoplast?
    A. the lumen of a sieve tube
    B. the lumen of a xylem vessel
    C. the cell wall of a root hair
    D. the cell wall of a mesophyll cell
    E. an extracellular air space
    A. the lumen of a sieve tube
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following is an adaptation that enhances the uptake of water and minerals by roots? 
    A. mycorrhizae
    B? cavitation
    C.active uptake by vessels
    D.rhythmic contractions by cortical cells
    E. pumping through plasmodesmata
    A. mycorrhizae
  16. Which of the following is not part of the transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism for the ascent of xylem sap?
    A. hydrophilic walls of tracheids and vessels that help maintain the column of water against gravity
    B. active pumping of water into the xylem of roots
    C. lowering of ψ in the surface film of mesophyll cells due to transpiration
    D. loss of water from the mesophyll cells, which initiates a pull of water molecules from neighboring cells
    E. transfer of transpirational pull from one water molecule to the next, due to cohesion by hydrogen bonds
    B. active pumping of water into the xylem of roots
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Photosynthesis ceases when leaves wilt, mainly because
    A. the chlorophyll of wilting leaves breaks down
    B.accumulation of CO2 in the leaf inhibits enzymes.
    C.photolysis, the water-splitting step of photosynthesis, cannot occur when there is a water deficiency
    D.stomata close, preventing CO2 from entering the leaf
    E.flaccid mesophyll cells are incapable of photosynthesis
    D.stomata close, preventing CO2 from entering the leaf
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Stomata open when guard cells
    A. become more turgid because of an addition of K+, followed by the osmotic entry of water
    B.close aquaporins, preventing uptake of water
    C. sense an increase in CO2 in the air spaces of the leaf
    D.open because of a decrease in turgor pressure.
    E.accumulate water by active transport.
    A. become more turgid because of an addition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Movement of phloem sap from a source to a sink 
    A. occurs through the apoplast of sieve-tube elements
    B.depends on pumping water into sieve tubes at the source
    C.depends on tension, or negative pressure potential
    D.results mainly from diffusion.
    E.may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots
    E.may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of these is not transported via the symplast? 
    A.sugars
    B. DNA
    C. proteins
    D. mRNA
    E.viruses
    B. DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. All the organisms on your campus make up
    A.a population
    B.an experimental group
    C. an ecosystem
    D.a community
    E.a taxonomic domain.
    D.a community
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
    A. organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
    B. organ system, nervous tissue, brain
    C. organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
    D. brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue
    E. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
    E. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based? 
    A. Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
    B. Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring.
    C. A population can become adapted to its environment over time.
    D. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
    E.There is heritable variation among individuals.
    D. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Systems biology is mainly an attempt to 
    A. simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
    B. speed up the technological application of scientific knowledge.
    C. construct models of the behavior of entire biological systems.
    D. understand the integration of all levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere.
    E. build high-throughput machines for the rapid acquisition of biological data.
    C. construct models of the behavior of entire biological systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because 
    A. protists eat bacteria.
    B.bacteria are not made of cells.
    C.protists are photosynthetic.
    D.bacteria decompose protists.
    E. protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
    E. protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
    A. descent with modification
    B. natural selection
    C. the structure and function of DNA
    D. matching DNA nucleotide sequences
    E. emergent properties
    C. the structure and function of DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following is an example of qualitative data? 
    A. The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks.
    B. The temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C.
    C. The plant's height is 25 centimeters (cm).
    D. The fish swam in a zig-zag motion.
    E. The contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds.
    D. The fish swam in a zig-zag motion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following best describes the logic of hypothesis based science?
    A. If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
    B. If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
    C. If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
    D. If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
    E. If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.
    A. If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. A controlled experiment is one that
    A.keeps all environmental variables constant
    B. proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
    C.is supervised by an experienced scientist.
    D. may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.
    E. is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
    D. may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
    A.Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers
    B.Theories are proved true in all cases; hypotheses are usually falsified by tests.
    C.Hypotheses and theories are essentially the same thing
    D. Theories are hypotheses that have been proved
    E.Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power
    E.Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Most of the mass of organic material of a plant comes from 
    A.soil minerals.
    B.atmospheric oxygen.
    C.nitrogen.
    D.water.
    E.carbon dioxide
    E.carbon dioxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Micronutrients are needed in very small amounts because 
    A..most are supplied in large enough quantities in seeds.
    B.they play only a minor role in the growth and health of the plant.
    C.most of them are mobile in the plant.
    D.most serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes.
    E.only the most actively growing regions of the plants require micronutrients.
    D.most serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The rhizosphere would best be described as
    A.legume root swellings that are involved in nitrogen fixation.
    B.soil that is bound to roots and differs from the surrounding soil in containing many more microbes.
    C. the spherical soil horizon in which roots typically grow.
    D.all of the living organisms that inhabit the soil.
    E.the part of the topsoil that supplies carbohydrates to plants.
    B.soil that is bound to roots and differs from the surrounding soil in containing many more microbes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Some of the problems associated with intensive irrigation include all but
    A.land subsidence.
    B.soil salinization.
    C. mineral runoff.
    D.aquifer depletion.
    E.overfertilization.
    E.overfertilization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if
    A.the older leaves are in direct sunlight.
    B.the mineral is very mobile within the plant.
    C. the mineral is a micronutrient.
    D.the mineral is a macronutrient.
    E.the mineral is required for chlorophyll synthesis.
    B.the mineral is very mobile within the plant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Two groups of tomatoes were grown under laboratory conditions, one with humus added to the soil and one a control without humus. The leaves of the plants grown without humus were yellowish (less green) compared with those of the plants grown in humus-enriched soil. The best explanation for this difference is that 
    A.the heat released by the decomposing leaves of the humus caused more rapid growth and chlorophyll synthesis.
    B.the healthy plants used the food in the decomposing leaves of the humus for energy to make chlorophyll.
    C.the humus contained minerals such as magnesium and iron, needed for the synthesis of chlorophyll.
    D.the healthy plants absorbed chlorophyll from the humus.
    E.the humus made the soil more loosely packed, so water penetrated more easily to the roots.
    C.the humus contained minerals such as magnesium and iron, needed for the synthesis of chlorophyll.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The specific relationship between a legume and its mutualistic Rhizobium strain probably depends on
    A. each legume having a chemical dialog with a fungus.
    B. each legume being found where the soil has only the Rhizobium specific to that legume.
    C.each Rhizobium strain having a form of nitrogenase that works only in the appropriate legume host.
    D.specific recognition between the chemical signals and signal receptors of the Rhizobium strain and legume species.
    E.destruction of all incompatible Rhizobium strains by enzymes secreted from the legume's roots.
    D.specific recognition between the chemical signals and signal receptors of the Rhizobium strain and legume species
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Mycorrhizae enhance plant nutrition mainly by 
    A.stimulating the development of root hairs.
    B. absorbing water and minerals through the fungal hyphae
    C.providing sugar to the root cells, which have no chloroplasts of their own
    D.enabling the roots to parasitize neighboring plants
    E.converting atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia
    B. absorbing water and minerals through the fungal hyphae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. We would expect the greatest difference in plant health between two groups of plants of the same species, one group with mycorrhizae and one group without mycorrhizae, in an environment 
    A.that has hot summers and cold winters.
    B.that has soil with poor drainage
    C. that is near a body of water, such as a pond or river.
    D. in which the soil is relatively deficient in mineral nutrients.
    E. where nitrogen-fixing bacteria are abundant
    D. in which the soil is relatively deficient in mineral nutrients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Carnivorous adaptations of plants mainly compensate for soil that has a relatively low content of 
    A. calcium.
    B.phosphate.
    C.nitrogen.
    D. water.
    E.potassium.
    C. Nitrogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. A plant that has small, green petals is most likely to be 
    A.bat-pollinated.
    B.bird-pollinated.
    C. bee-pollinated.
    D.moth-pollinated.
    E.wind-pollinated.
    E.wind-pollinated.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. A seed develops from 
    A. an ovum
    B.an embryo.
    C.an ovule
    D.an ovary.
    E.a pollen grain
    C.an ovule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. A fruit is a
    A.an enlarged embryo sac.
    B.a seed plus its integuments
    C.a fused carpel.
    D.a mature ovule.
    E. mature ovary
    E. mature ovary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Double fertilization means that 
    A.every sperm has two nuclei.
    B.flowers must be pollinated twice to yield fruits and seeds
    C.every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.
    D.one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
    E.the egg of the embryo sac is diploid.
    D.one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Some dioecious species have the XY genotype for male and XX for female. After double fertilization, what would be the genotypes of the embryos and endosperm nuclei? 
    A.embryo XX and endosperm XX or embryo XY and endosperm XY
    B.embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XXY
    C.embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XY
    D. embryo X and endosperm XX or embryo Y and endosperm XY
    E.embryo XY and endosperm XXX or embryo XX and endosperm XXY
    B.embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XXY
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which statement concerning grafting is correct? 
    A.Stocks come from vines, but scions come from trees
    B.Stocks and scions must come from unrelated species.
    C.Stocks provide root systems for grafting.
    D. Stocks and scions refer to twigs of different species.
    E.Grafting creates new species.
    C.Stocks provide root systems for grafting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Plant biotechnologists use protoplast fusion mainly to
    A. culture plant cells in vitro
    B.study the early events following fertilization.
    C.introduce bacterial genes into a plant genome.
    D.asexually propagate desirable plant varieties
    E.produce new hybrid species.
    E.produce new hybrid species.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The basal cell from the zygote's first division develops into
    A.two cotyledons in eudicots, but one in monocots.
    B. the suspensor that anchors the embryo and transfers nutrients
    C.the proembryo
    D.the root apex of the embryo.
    E.the endosperm that nourishes the developing embryo
    B. the suspensor that anchors the embryo and transfers nutrients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The development of Bt crops raises concerns because
    A.pollen from these crops is harmful to monarch butterfly larvae in the field.
    B. Bt crops have been shown to be toxic to humans.
    C.if genes for Bt toxin "escape" to related weed species, the hybrid weeds could have harmful ecological effects.
    D.Bacillus thuringiensis is a pathogen of humans.
    E.Bt toxin reduces the nutritional quality of crops.
    C.if genes for Bt toxin "escape" to related weed species, the hybrid weeds could have harmful ecological effects.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. "Golden Rice"
    A.is a transgenic variety that is resistant to various herbicides, making it practical to weed rice fields with those herbicides
    B.is resistant to a virus that commonly attacks rice fields.
    C.includes bacterial genes that produce a toxin that reduces damage from insect pests.
    D.produces larger, golden grains that increase crop yields.
    E. contains daffodil genes that increase vitamin A content.
    E. contains daffodil genes that increase vitamin A content
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has 
    A.the same surface-to-volume ratio.
    B.a smaller cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio.
    C.less surface area.
    D.less surface area per unit of volume.
    E.a smaller average distance between its mitochondria and the external source of oxygen.
    D.less surface area per unit of volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The epithelium best adapted for a body surface subject to abrasion is 
    A.simple cuboidal
    B.simple columnar.
    C.simple squamous
    D.stratified squamous.
    E.stratified columnar.
    D.stratified squamous.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following is not an adaptation for reducing the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment? 
    A.blubber or fat layer
    B.vasoconstriction
    C.nonshivering thermogenesis
    D.feathers or fur
    E.countercurrent heat exchanger
    C.nonshivering thermogenesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Which of the following animals uses the highest percent of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
    A. a hydra
    B.a desert bird
    C.a desert insect
    D.a snake in a temperate forest
    E.a marine jelly (an invertebrate)
    B.a desert bird
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass. 
    A.penguin; mouse
    B.elephant; mouse
    C.elephant; human
    D.human; penguin
    E.mouse; snake
    B.elephant; mouse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs
    A.if it is growing and increasing its mass.
    B.never; homeostasis makes these energy and material budgets always balance.
    C. if the animal is an endotherm, which must always take in more energy because of its high metabolic rate.
    D.if it is actively foraging for food.
    E.if it is hibernating.
    A.if it is growing and increasing its mass.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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