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SENSORIMOTOR: Birth - 2 Years
- - uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world; this period begins with reflexes and coordinations sesorimotor skills
- - develops schema
- - begins to interact with environment
- - learns that an object still exists when out of sight (object permeance) and begins to remember and imagine experiences (mental representation)
- - develops thinking and goal-directed behavior
PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT: 2-6 Years
- - develops egocentric thinking (understands the world from only one perspective)
- - uses trial and error to discover new traits and characteristrics
- - conceptualizes time as being limited to the present
- - centers or focuses on a single aspect on an object, producing some distortion of reality
- - gains in imaginative ability
- - gradually begins to "de-center" (becomes less ego-centric and understands other points of view)
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL THOUGHT: 7-11 Years
- - understands and applies logical operations or principles to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions.
- - has more realistic views; better understands other viewpoints
- - improves use of memory
- - focuses on more than one task; develops logical, socialized thoughts
- - recognizes cause-and-effect relationships
- - learns to identify behavior outcome
- - understands basic ideas of conversation, number classification, and other concrete ideas
FORMAL OPERATIONAL THOUGHT 12+ Years
- - uses systematic, scientific problem-solving approach
- - recognizes past, present, and future
- - is able to think about abstractions and hypothetic concepts and is able to move in thought "from the real to the possible"
- - becomes more interested in ethics, politics, and all social and moral issues as ability to take a broader and more theoretic approach to experience increases
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