Human Bio Units 1,2,3,4

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Human Bio Units 1,2,3,4
2013-02-13 00:24:04
Human Biology

Early units of College Human Biology / Anatomy
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  1. Medial
    Toward or at the midline of the body.
  2. Proximal
    Closer to the origin of the body part.
  3. Dorsal / Posterior
    Towards or at the back 
  4. Towards or at front of the body
  5. Ipsilateral
    Opposite body parts on the same side.  Example:  Right hand and right foot.
  6. Sagittal Plane
    Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left
  7. Transverse Plane
    Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior.  (Top and bottom)
  8. Distal
    Farther from the body or origin of body part
  9. Major organs in the thoracic cavity?
    Lungs, heart, pericardial sac.
  10. Major organs in the abdominal cavity?
    Stomach, liver, kidney
  11. Homeostasis
    The property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH.
  12. Scientific Method
    Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment/Observations, Conclusion (Support or reject hypothesis), Scientific Theory.  (Supported by many successful experiments and observations)
  13. Example of Homeostasis 
    Cardiovascular and nervous system work together to maintain a constant temperature.  
  14. Explain how a scientist arrives at a scientific theory.
    After making initial observations, scientists will study previous data.  Scientist then forms a hypothesis.  Hypothesis becomes basis for new experiments and observation, which lead to a conclusion that either does or doesn't support hypothesis.
  15. What is a control group, and what is its importance in a controlled study?
    A group that is not subject to certain parts of a study, such as medication, but believes that they are.  This helps determine whether changes were from medication, placebo effect, etc.  
  16. The level of organization most responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis is the ___ level.  
  17. The level of organization that includes all the populations in a given area along with the physical environment would be a _____.
  18. Atom
    Smallest units of an element that retain the element's physical and chemical properties.  These bond together to form molecules.
  19. Composition of an atom
    Neutrons and protons (positive) make up nucleus.  Electrons (negative) orbit nucleus.  Atomic number is equal to the number of protons.  
  20. Isotope
    Atoms that have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass because the number of neutrons differ.  
  21. Radioactive Isotopes 
    Useful in dating old objects, imaging body organs and tissues through x-rays, and killing cancer cells.
  22. Ionic Bond
    Donate or take on electrons.  Occurs between particles that are charged.  (Ions)  Results in stable outer shell.  
  23. Covalent Bonds
    Atoms in this type of bond share electrons.
  24. Nonpolar covalent bond
    A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair.  Only bonds between the same elements are truly nonpolar.
  25. Polar covalent bond
    A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have different electronegativities and therefore have unequal sharing of the bonding electron pair.  The result is a bond where the electron pair is displaced toward the more electronegative atom.  
  26. Hydrogen bond
    Occurs between a hydrogen in a covalent bond and a negatively charged atom.  (Weak bonds)
  27. pH
    Measure of hydrogen ion concentration.  Below 7 is acidic, above 7 is basic.
  28. Dehydration reaction
    The removal of water that allows subunits to link together into larger molecules.
  29. Hydrolysis reaction
    The addition of water that breaks larger molecules into their subunits.
  30. The four major organic molecules in living organisms
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
  31. What are buffers, and why are they important to life?  
    Buffers keep pH within a narrow range and prevent changes.
  32. Three classes of carbohydrates 
    • (Simple) Monosaccharide: 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose
    • Disaccharides: 1. Sucrose2. lactose 3. maltose
    • (Complex) Polysaccharides: 1. starch 2. glycogen 3. cellulose
  33. Biological functions of carb classes
    • Monosaccharides are used as fuel. Disaccharides transport sugars.
    • Polysaccharides are for storage.
  34. Nucleic Acids
    Function in the cell to make proteins.  Includes DNA and RNA.
  35. DNA and RNA structural differences
    DNA: Thymine as nitrogen base, deoxiribose as a 5 carbon sugar, double stranded.

    RNA: Uracil as nitrogen base, Ribose as 5 carbon sugar, Single stranded.
  36. A polysaccharide used for energy storage in humans.
  37. Four major types of tissue
    Connective, Muscular, Nervous, Epithelial
  38. Integumentary system
    Includes the skin and accessory organs such as hair, nails, and glands.  Important for maintaining homeostasis.  Protects body from trauma, pathogens, and water loss.  Synthesizes chemicals such as vitamin D.
  39. Two main regions of skin
    Epidermis:  Thin, outermost layer of the skin made up of epithelial tissue.  

    Dermis:  Thick, inner layer of the skin made of dense fibrous connective tissue.  Contains elastic and collagen fibers.  Contains blood vessels, many sensory receptors and glands.
  40. Enzymes
    Any of various proteins, as pepsin, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion.