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Describe the characteristics primary measures
used to evaluate performance must have.
- Administered repeatedly; consistency of
- measurement; capacity to reflect change; dimensional scale; relevance of the
- measure; importance of the measure
What are ceiling and floor effects?
Change in measure may reach an upper and lower limit. There must be room for the measure to show some change in the intended direction.
What is the difference between importance and
- Relevance assesses problem directly, or some domain highly correlated with that domain.
- Importance is the problem the issue poses on the individual or society.
What are the arguments for using multiple
measures whenever possible?
- Rare for single measure to capture construct completely
- The nature of many problems encompassesmultiple facets
- Multiple perspectives are often pertinent. Different methods often yield differentinformation.
- Even focused measurements produce other important information
What is the utility of using pre-post
assessments and probes throughout a study?
Provide supplementary information ongoing data does not show. Usually, probes are used to assess behavior over time, in another setting, or whether another behavior has changed.
Distinguish between reliability and validity.
Validity refers to the content of the measure and whether the measure assesses the domain of interest.
What are the 5 points related to validity of
- Any single measure does not usually
- capture all of the domains of interest.
- Usually limited to specific situations
- Is it measuring something importan
- Measures are completed by
May be change, but it may not be important to client or others
When would it be appropriate to use a frequency
- Behavior has clear beginning and end, and relatively
- consistent length of time.
What are the two ways frequency measures are
Situation in which behavior is free tooccur on multiple occasions.Situation in which responses are limitedbecause of discrete trials or limited opportunities to respond.
What are the critical differences between
discrete categorization and frequency measures?
Discrete cat- +,-; inc, cor, performed/notperformedFrequency-single behavior tallied;discrete- several behaviors may have occurredFrequency- unlimited, discrete- unlimitedopportunities
What is a unique feature of discrete
The events on the checklist need not berelated or form steps.
Provide an original example of a situation in
which the number of people who perform a given behavior would be of interest.
Teaching a group of kids to shoot baskets.Take data on how many kids make a basket on the first try.
Describe the two main versions of time-based
Interval recording measures behavior duringa block of time.Response duration- amount of time theresponse is being performed.
What is a response-specific measure and why are
these measures of use?
Unique to the specific behaviors under investigation. Directly assess the response or a product of the response.
When would it be appropriate to use a
self-report measure? What are some of the problems with self-report measures?
Verbal behavior, paper and pencil tests.Response bias, agreeing to be agreeable, lying.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic and contrived conditions of assessment?
Naturalistic is measured as it normally occurs. Often difficult to capture if responses are rare. Situations are contrived to asses behavior in improbably situations that would be difficult to capture. Provide consistent and standardized assessment conditions. Minimize extraneous variability.
Kazdin notes that single-subject designs “bypass
variability due to intersubject differences which are included in the design of
between-group experiments.” What are the advantages of this?
Not a feature of the behavioral processes of the individual subject.Lawful effects of the variables may be obscured.
What does interdependence refer to and which experimental
design is it associated with?
Interrelated highly with each other. Multiple baseline across behaviors.
What situations would
require the use of a control or comparison group?
Finding treatments that cannot easily be evaluated in single subject or single group tests. Refining treatment for reading skill compared to control group.Global efficacy of treatment,hospital discharge rates.When different levels of the variable are evaluated, within group design may restrict the external validity of the study. Need a group that has not been exposed to any variables.
Separate groups are used
in research when one is interested in evaluating different levels of
variables that are introduced initially to the subject(s) who have not
previously been exposed to any experimental phase. Can you think of another way this could
be accomplished, other than separating participants into two different
Alternate treatment across participants.
What are the 6 classes of results of independent
variable inaccuracies that were reviewed?
Differences between programmed and actual independent variable application noted during the study prior to conclusions.Inaccuracies noted in the study, but conclusions remain the same.Inaccurate IV application changed conclusions, causing ineffective treatment to appear effective. Inaccurate ind variable makes effective treatment ineffective Faulty IV caused failure to replicate. Failure to replicate caused by IV implementation inaccuracies.
How is therapist drift defined?
Treatment agent gradually alters treatment
Why is it problematic to only publish successful
If there were problems with the originalexperiment IV problems included, replications which show this will not beshown. Ineffective treatment may continue to be used.
Why is steady state responding not necessarily
indicative of the independent variable being applied accurately?
Affirming the consequence. DV mayreach steady state regardless.
Explain why anticipated changes in behavior when
the treatment variable is applied do not necessarily indicate a robust
DV changes appropriately. Inaccurate applicationsmay result in lack of control and do not constitute robust functionalrelationship. Extraneous variables must be shown to be random or effect changein the opposite direction.
What is the ultimate cost of lack of independent
Possibly accepting a powerless program as strong or rejecting a powerful one as having no effect.
Describe the cost-effective solutions proposed
in this article.
- Directly assess IV accuracy. Use data from observers and calibrate with actual data.
- Reading the article
- Collect IV accuracy data when risk of inaccuracy is high.
Why would it be preferred to use partial interval
recording over momentary time sampling when evaluating treatment for problem
- It problem behaviors are
- physically dangerous, such as aggression or SIB, it would be potentially
- dangerous and neglectful to underestimate rate or duration.
Explain why discontinuous sampling methods may be
contraindicated for small treatment effects.
- Given the likelihood of false
- negatives, a funcinal relation may remain undetected.
Based on results, what did the authors
conclude regarding use of PIR and MTS procedures?
MTS recommended for duration and PIR recommended for frequency.