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2013-02-13 04:46:35
Cognition Attention Psychology

Cognition Attention Psychology
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  1. ability
    "a basic characteristic of an individual that limits the level of performance on a task when maximal performance is attempted
  2. "
  3. acceptability (mental workload)
    "a criterion for the selection of workload measures. In order for a workload measure to be reliable
  4. alertness
    "preparedness to respond to a specific stimulus. According to Sanders’s (1983) energetic model of information processing
  5. apperception
    "an act that is necessary for an individual to become conscious of a perceptual event (i.e.
  6. arousal
    physiological readiness for activity
  7. assumption of pure insertion
    the assumption that the insertion of an additional process does not alter the basic structure of a task; required for application of the subtraction method
  8. attention
    "a multi-faceted construct variously defined as all aspects of human cognition that are under the control of the individual
  9. "
  10. attentional blink
    a deficit in reporting the second of two targets presented with rapid serial visual presentation when the second target occurs about 200-500 ms after the first
  11. attentional control
    the selective application of processing resources to specific tasks or stimuli
  12. attentional gradient metaphor
    a conception of attention as a distribution of resources across a particular spatial region. The concentration of attention at a particular point in space is a function of the allocation of resources within the entire display space across time.
  13. "
  14. attentional narrowing "
    the tendency of people in high-stress situations to restrict their attention to an inappropriately small set of displays or information sources
  15. attentional set
    readiness to perform a particular task with a particular sort of stimulus
  16. "
  17. attentional spotlight metaphor "
    "a conception of attention as a spotlight that can be moved across different regions of space. Items within the range of the spotlight receive preferential processing.
  18. "
  19. auditory monitoring task
    a task in which subjects listen to streams of auditory stimuli and indicate when they have heard a target; Usually performed under noisy conditions
  20. augmented feedback
    supplementary feedback provided for a continuous task in real time in order to enhance an operator's perception of the manner in which the task was performed
  21. automatic attention response
    "a process that allows the automatic attraction of attention to a specific stimulus; In search tasks
  22. automatic processing
    "according to the dual-process theory of Schneider and Shiffrin (1977)
  23. Baddeley’s model of working memory
    "a model of working memory consisting of a visuo-spatial sketchpad responsible for storing and manipulating visual images
  24. beta (bias)
    "In signal detection theory
  25. "
  26. brain-computer interface (BCI)*
    an interface that relies on measurement of brain activity to enable interaction with a computer
  27. Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention
    "a model of attention in which perceptual items and categorizations of the items are simultaneously selected. In this model
  28. "
  29. central executive
    a component of Baddeley’s working memory model. Sometimes called the “attentional controller”
  30. central nervous system
    "all the cells within the bony structures of the skull and the spinal column
  31. change blindness
    "the inability to see a change in two scenes presented before and after a global or local transient (e.g.
  32. choice-reaction time tasks
    "tasks in which more than one stimulus (e.g.
  33. chunk
    "a term used to describe a unit of memory. According to Miller (1956)
  34. CODE surface
    "in the CODE theory of visual attention
  35. "
  36. "CODE Theory of Visual Attention (Logan
  37. compensatory costs
    effects of mental load (such as such as increased sympathetic activation or feelings of effort or strain) separate from those seen on task performance
  38. computer tomography (CT)
    a technique for producing computer-generated X-ray image of structures of soft tissues such as the brain
  39. conjunctive (conjunction) search
    "search for a target defined by a conjunction of features (e.g.
  40. connectionism
    "an information processing approach to the study of learning and memory in which processing is modelled by collections of simple
  41. "
  42. consistent mapping (CM) task
    "a task in which items or task characteristics are always to be responded to in the same manner. For example
  43. "
  44. contention scheduling
    "in Norman and Shallice’s (1986) model
  45. controlled processing
    "according to the dual-process theory of Schneider and Shiffrin (1977)
  46. cortical tone
    the neuropsychological term for arousal
  47. covert orienting
    directing attention to a point in space other than that to which the eyes are directed
  48. cross-modal attention
    an aspect of attention that is not specific to any particular modality
  49. cross-modal cuing
    "a paradigm in which the effects of a cue in one modality (e.g.
  50. cross-talk
    "effects of variation on one dimension or stimulus on the classification of another dimension or stimulus. For example
  51. "
  52. cross-training
    a method of training in teams in which team members are trained in each others’ functions
  53. cue-onset asynchrony
    the time elapsed between the onset of a cue and the onset of a target
  54. d'
    "In signal detection theory
  55. data-limited process
    "characteristic of a task in which the availability of resources has no effect on performance because (a) the perceptual quality of the data is so poor that it acts as a limiting factor in performance; (b) the task relies upon knowledge of limited quality
  56. "
  57. detection task
    a task in which the participant is instructed to detect the presence of any one of a pre-specified set of stimuli or stimulus characteristics
  58. diagnosticity
    term applied to measurement procedures and indicating the capability to discriminate among different varieties of a process. Used in particular to refer to the capability of a workload assessment technique to distinguish the levels of loading imposed on separate information processing capacities or resources
  59. dichotic listening paradigm
    "a task in which two separate auditory signals are presented separately to the two ears. Typically
  60. difficulty insensitivity
    "characteristic of two timeshared tasks in which increases in the difficulty of one of them (Task A) leaves the performance of the other (Task B) unaffected
  61. digit symbol subtest of the WAIS
    a sensitive task to evaluate speed of information processing in which symbols are filled in for digits according to a key provided at the top of the test
  62. display monitoring and scanning models
    models for the way in which a human operator divides his/her attention among a number of information sources to accomplish the task objectives. These models are also called attention allocation models
  63. display salience
    the degree to which particular stimulus features in a display will be attended to and acted upon
  64. display size
    the number of stimuli presented in a given display in a visual search experiment
  65. distractor
    the stimuli in a task that are not targets and are meant to be ignored
  66. divided attention
    the division of attentional resources to perform simultaneous tasks
  67. Donders’ subtractive method
    a method of determining the time required to perform a particular process by measuring the time to perform a task which includes that process and subtracting from it the time to perform a task which does not include the process but which is otherwise identical
  68. double dissociation
    "an interaction between treatments and treatment groups in which one patient or group is able to carry out one task (e.g. reading) but not another (e.g. object recognition)
  69. dual-task decrement
    a decrease in performance in one task when it is performed together with another task instead of in isolation. The term is also used to refer to a greater dual-task decrement in older as compared to younger performers
  70. early selection
    attentional selection of certain stimuli for further processing based on basic perceptual features of the stimuli
  71. ease of use
    a criterion for the selection of workload measures. Based on the ease of administration of the workload assessment procedure
  72. echoic memory
    auditory sensory memory holding an ear-specific representation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus for up to 150-350 ms after the auditory stimulation has been terminated.
  73. ecological interface design
    design ideology that focuses on the constraints in the task environment that are relevant to the user rather than creating arbitrary symbolic representations of the “real” environment
  74. effector
    final body part involved in a response
  75. effort
    an energetic resource that directly influences the efficiency of response selection. May be likened to “conscious processing.”
  76. electrodermal activity
    the electrical activity of the skin
  77. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    "recording of the brain's electrical activity (the ongoing electrical activity of the brain that can he recorded from the scalp via electrodes); usually analysed by decomposing the EEG into its constituent frequency components
  78. emergent feature view
    "The view that displays that capitalize on an emergent feature (a feature that is only present (“emerges”) as a result of the way in which multiple elements of a display or multiple displays are aligned or grouped) reduce attentional demands that as a user must devote to a multi-element display because the operator can monitor the global property rather than the individual components.
  79. "
  80. endogenous orienting
    "orienting of the eyes or of attention on the basis of intention. In endogenous orienting
  81. energetic processes
    "processes having to do with the amount of energy
  82. "
  83. error-related negativity (ERN)*
    "a negative component in the EEG
  84. event-related brain potential (ERP)
    electrical activity recorded at the scalp that occurs in response to (and is measured with respect to) an external stimulus event.
  85. exogenous orienting
    orienting of the eyes or of attention in response to an external stimulus
  86. explicit memory test
    "a memory test in which the rememberer is asked to reflect upon a particular episode in the past (e.g.
  87. extinction
    a condition in which a stimulus presented in the hemifield contralateral to a brain lesion is poorly reported when a second stimulus is also presented to the patient
  88. false alarm
    the incorrect reporting that a wanted signal has occurred
  89. fatigue after-effects
    "the tendency of people to show a preference for using low-cost strategies for performing other
  90. feature integration theory
    a theory of visual search in which attention must be allocated to stimulus locations in order to integrate the features of the stimulus presented at that location
  91. feature search
    "search for a target which differs from all distractors on the basis of a single feature such as color or shape.
  92. "
  93. filter theory
    "Broadbent’s early-selection theory of attention in which information is initially held in a preattentive temporary store
  94. "
  95. flanker validity effect
    the finding that flankers can influence response time to a target when they are correlated with a given target. The effect can occur even when no responses are assigned to the flankers themselves
  96. flanker-compatibility effect
    the finding that responses to a target flanked by distractors (flankers) are slower when the flankers are assigned to a response different than that of the target relative to when the flankers are associated with the same response as the target or with no response at all
  97. fluency test
    a simple neuropsychological test of executive function in which the patient is asked to produce as many as possible exemplars of a category within one minute
  98. focused attention
    attention required to attend to a relevant subset of possible information sources and to ignore all else
  99. go or no-go reaction (Donders’ c reaction)
    The task is to respond to only one stimulus of a set of two or more stimuli.
  100. head-up display (HUD)
    a display which superimposes a virtual image of the information display (the near domain) on the central area in which the outside world (the far domain) is viewed in order to place important display information in close proximity
  101. heart rate
    "measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as beats pet minute or as inter-beat interval
  102. heart-rate variability
    beat-to-beat variation in the heart rhythm
  103. iconic memory
    a memory buffer in which items from a briefly flashed array may reside for up to about 800 ms
  104. ideomotor compatibility
    said to be present when stimuli closely resemble the sensory feedback that results when the responses assigned to them are made
  105. ignored repetition trial
    "in the negative priming paradigm
  106. illusory conjunctions
    the illusion that a certain stimulus was present in a display that results from incorrectly combining features of stimuli that were present in the display
  107. implicit learning
    learning without intention to do so
  108. implicit memory test
    a test of memory that does not require that rememberers consciously refer back to a particular episode in the past
  109. infarct (stroke)
    the obstruction of an artery in the brain
  110. information theory
    a theory in which information is quantified as the reduction in uncertainty.
  111. inhibition of return
    "the finding that responses to a target presented at a location where an uninformative cue event occurred are slower than responses to targets at other locations when the period between the presentations of the cue and target is longer than about 300 ms.
  112. "
  113. inhibitory tagging
    a hypothetical process of “tagging” items in a display as having already been checked during a search for a specified target
  114. Instance Theory of Automaticity
    "a theory of skill acquisition in which performance speeds up as a function of practice because more and more instances are collected as time goes on
  115. intentional forgetting paradigm
    "a paradigm in which participants are cued to forget some of the items presented in the course of the experiment (also called directed forgetting)
  116. "
  117. time-interval production task
    "a task that requires a subject to generate a series of regular time intervals by performing a motor (e.g.
  118. "
  119. intrusiveness
    a criterion for the selection of workload measures. Intrusion of the workload measurement process into actual task performance should be minimal
  120. late selection
    attentional selection of certain stimuli for further processing based on higher level properties of stimuli such as their meaning
  121. latent inhibition
    the observation that the repeated presentation a specific stimulus that has no significance in a “pre-task” performed before the criterion task renders the learning of a predictive relationship involving this stimulus in a subsequent task more difficult
  122. lateral masking
    the finding that presenting items adjacent to a target renders the target more difficult to detect
  123. lateralized readiness potential (LRP)
    "electrical activity recorded above the primary motor areas prior to the execution of a response. Relatively high contralateral activity to the side of a required response hand indicates that motor activation is larger for the required response
  124. line bisection test
    a test of neglect in which patients are asked to mark the midpoint of a number of lines. Patients with neglect make systematic errors
  125. load profile
    a description of the mental load imposed by a task constructed by pairing the task of interest with a variety of secondary tasks
  126. loading-task paradigm
    "a secondary-task paradigm in which the emphasis is placed on the secondary task
  127. "
  128. magnetoencephalography (MEG)
    "a technique for recording the ongoing very weak magnetic fields generated by neuronal currents in the brain
  129. "
  130. memory search
    "a task in which items held in memory are compared with a displayed item to determine whether the displayed item is a member of the memory set.
  131. "
  132. memory set
    a number of elements held in memory for subsequent recall or comparison with an item presented within a display
  133. memory span
    "the number of items that can
  134. mental set
    "the contextual setting (intention
  135. mental workload
    the information processing demands imposed by the performance of cognitive tasks. Commonly defined as the difference between the information processing capacity required for task performance and the capacity available at any given time
  136. mood-congruent memory
    the finding that people tend to remember information that is congruent with their mood state better than information that is incongruent with the current state
  137. motor program
    a set of muscle commands put in place before an action is begun and that allow the action to be carried out uninfluenced by peripheral feedback
  138. multiple-resources framework
    "the view that different sorts of tasks
  139. negative priming
    longer reaction time to a target in a probe display when it has previously appeared as a distractor in a prime display relative to a target that was not also present in the prime display
  140. neglect
    "a neurological disorder in which a patient
  141. neuroergonomics*
    cognitive neuroscience applied to understanding brain and behavior in work-relevant tasks.
  142. neurological inhibition
    inhibition at a neural level in which the activation level of neurons is lowered due to inhibitory connections with other neurons
  143. object file
    "in Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory
  144. oddball paradigm
    "a paradigm widely used in ERP research in which a series of one
  145. orthogonal cuing paradigm
    "a cuing paradigm used in cross-modal cuing paradigms in order to dissociate the location of the cue from judgments of the location of the target. For example
  146. overt orienting
    "a change in the positioning of the senses (e.g.
  147. P3 component of the ERP
    "A positive component of the ERP occurring about 300 ms after stimulus presentation. The peak amplitude of the P3 is thought to reflect the endpoint of stimulus evaluation. The component has been interpreted as reflecting processes involved in memory updating
  148. "
  149. parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
    the branch of the autonomic nervous system dedicated to conserving and maintaining bodily resources
  150. part training
    a method of instruction in which a trainee practices some component or set of components of a criterion task prior to practicing or performing the whole task
  151. partial-report superiority effect
    the finding that the percentage of letters reported from a briefly presented display is higher when a cue is given indicating a subset of letters to report than when all letters should be reported.
  152. PASAT
    the Paced Serial Addition Test. A clinical test of divided attention in which auditorily presented digits have to be remembered and added together
  153. perceptual-load hypothesis
    "The hypothesis that whether selection is early or late depends on the perceptual load imposed by the task. Irrelevant stimuli are fully identified when perceptual load is low but when perceptual load is high
  154. performance operating characteristic (POC)
    "a plot of performance on one task against performance on a second task with which it is timeshared under conditions in which maximum effort is devoted to the performance of the two tasks
  155. peripheral nervous system
    that part of the nervous system consisting of all neurons outside the skull and spinal column
  156. phonological loop
    part of working memory used to store and manipulate speech-based information
  157. power law of practice
    the phenomenon that performance in a task improves as a power function of the number of trials of practice
  158. primary-task technique
    a technique for measuring mental workload in which the influence of additional task demands on performance of the primary task are measured
  159. prime
    "a stimulus presented before another target and which is expected to affect processing of the subsequent target.
  160. "
  161. priming effects
    effects of a stimulus presented at one point in time on the processing of a stimulus presented at a different point in time
  162. principle of moving components
    a principle of display design that moving elements of a display should move in the direction that is consistent with the user’s mental model
  163. principle of pictorial realism
    a principle of display design that the display should visually depict the item it is supposed to represent
  164. probe (probe display)
    a target for a task. Probe targets follow prime targets in priming tasks; the word is generally used when there are multiple events in a trial. See also: probe reaction time paradigm
  165. probe-dot procedure
    a means of measuring attentional allocation to a particular region of space by measuring reaction time to a visual probe at that location
  166. probe-reaction time paradigm
    "the paradigm developed by Posner and Boies (1971) in which reaction time to a target (the probe) is measured during the performance of another
  167. probe-signal paradigm
    a technique to study auditory detection in which the presentation of the target is followed by a two-interval forced choice task.
  168. procedural frame hypothesis
    the hypothesis that task goals provide a framework into which means to accomplish a task are assimilated to perform mental activities
  169. procedural learning
    learning evidenced by improvements in the execution of task elements and presumably involving a different memory system than the declarative learning of facts and instructions
  170. procedural memory
    a memory system that enables retention of learned associations between stimuli and responses and supports adaptive responses to the environment
  171. prospective memory
    remembering to perform an act in the future
  172. proximity compatibility principle
    "the guideline that tasks that require information integration will benefit from integrated displays
  173. psychological refractory period (PRP) effect
    the slowing in reaction time to the second of two tasks when the second task is performed in temporal contiguity with the first
  174. pupillometry
    the measurement of the diameter of the pupil; used a s a measurement of mental workload
  175. rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)
    "a presentation technique in which simple visual items such as letters
  176. reactive inhibition
    inhibition that arises as a result of performing some process
  177. reliability
    "the degree to which a measurement procedure
  178. "
  179. resources
    "a hypothetical construct related to mental effort and often used to explain differences in single- and dual-task performance. Resources are by definition limited and demands on resources increase as a task is made more difficult. Resource investment in a task of constant difficulty can to some extent be increased as the operator tries harder.
  180. "
  181. response criterion
    "in signal detection theory
  182. "
  183. response-selection bottleneck model
    a model of dual-task processing which states that response selection can only occur for one task at a time
  184. SAGAT
    The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique. A broad memory-probe technique for assessing situation awareness in which task performance (usually in a simulator) is momentarily stopped in order to ask performers various questions about their current perception of the situation.
  185. schema
    "generalized procedure for carrying out actions. According to Norman (1981)
  186. search task
    a detection task in which stimuli (targets and distracters) are presented above sensory threshold so that each is clearly identifiable
  187. secondary task
    a task that is performed concurrently with a primary task to assess primary-task workload
  188. secondary-task methodology
    a method of assessing resource or task demands by having performers carry out a second task while performing the primary task of interest
  189. semantic priming
    "a prime activates information that is stored in long- term memory. Semantic priming refers to the presentation of some word that activates the semantic concepts associated with that word. For example
  190. discrimination
    the capability of a measure to discriminate among different levels of a process of interest or levels of workload
  191. sensitivity (a criterion for the selection of workload measures).
    A measure is sensitive when it can detect subtle changes in workload
  192. sensory memory
    modality specific memory stores in which information can be briefly held
  193. set-size function
    "the function relating performance to the number of items in a display or memory set. In visual search tasks
  194. shadowing task
    a task in which a listener repeats back auditorily presented stimuli (usually words)
  195. short-term conceptual memory
    "a proposed ""durable store” that enables the rapid computation of post-categorical
  196. short-term consolidation
    The process that ensures that perceived information can be remembered and reported
  197. signal detection theory
    "as advanced by Green and Swets (1966)
  198. Simon effect
    "increased reaction time and decreased accuracy for a stimulus a stimulus presented in a location opposite to the response required to that stimulus as compared to when the stimulus is presented in a location that corresponds to the response location. For example
  199. Donders “a” reaction;
    "a task in which only one response is required
  200. simultanagnosia
    a neurological disorder in which patients are unable to simultaneously perceive the different aspects of an object or a visual scene
  201. single channel theory
    an early view of human attentional processes that proposed that humans could only process one channel of information at a time. It provides a useful characterization of human performance in some circumstances in which the information processing demands of the tasks in question are extremely high
  202. situation awareness
    a person’s awareness and understanding of a dynamic situation including the ability to project the status of elements in the situation in the near future
  203. slip of action (action slips)
    an error that is made as a result of the inappropriate application of a learned action
  204. span of apprehension
    the number of items that can be apprehended during a single glance
  205. spatial Stroop effect
    the relative difficulty in naming locations when the
  206. speed-accuracy trade-off
    "the inverse relation of reaction time and accuracy such that
  207. split-span technique
    a technique used to study selective attention in which a list of items to be remembered is split into two shorter lists for independent presentation to the two ears. The listener is instructed to report all items heard in both ears
  208. steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs)*
    "steady-state EEG potentials evoked by rapidly changing
  209. Sternberg’s additive factors method
    "a method for determining which stages are involved in a particular information processing task. Several factors (i.e.
  210. stop-signal paradigm
    "an experimental paradigm in which people are asked to perform a simple task
  211. strategic response-deferment
    "in the EPIC model of task performance
  212. Stroop effect
    "slower responses to name a color when the color is printed in the shape of a different color name as compared to naming color patches or the color of non-color words. See Stroop test
  213. "
  214. Stroop test
    "a test of selective attention or susceptibility to interfering information. The time to name color patches and to read color names is compared with the time to name the color of color names printed in conflicting colors (e.g.
  215. structural alteration effects
    "characteristic of two timeshared tasks in which a discrete alternation in the structure of one of them (e.g.
  216. structural interference
    dual-task interference due to the requirement to make similar sorts of responses
  217. subsidiary-task paradigm
    "one of the two principal variants of the secondary-task paradigm that is used to evaluate workload. In the subsidiary-task paradigm
  218. supervisory attention system (SAS)
    "in Norman and Shallice’s (1986) model of action control
  219. supra-modal attentional controller
    a hypothetical process by which attention can be directed regardless of the modality of the stimulus
  220. switching costs
    increases in reaction time and error rates on a task after switching to it from another task as compared to when the task is performed in isolation
  221. sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
    one of the branches of the autonomic nervous system. The basic function of the SNS is the mobilization of the body to meet emergencies
  222. target
    the member (or members) of the memory set that are actually present among the stimuli during a trial
  223. task alternation
    an operator uses a scanning or switching strategy to timeshare two tasks
  224. task integration
    "an operator timeshares two tasks by focusing attentional control on a common element or structure (e.g.
  225. task set
    the configuration of various “modules” in the brain so as to perform the appropriate action with a given stimuli
  226. task-set switching paradigm
    "a paradigm in which participants switch between the performance of two tasks in either a predictable (e.g.
  227. time-estimation task
    "these tasks require a subject to estimate or judge a specific time interval
  228. timesharing
    efficiently allocating processing resources to component tasks at the appropriate times
  229. "filter attenuation theory (Treisman
    1964) "
  230. "
  231. two-stage model of the attentional blink
    "a model of the attentional blink in which all targets are processed in a first stage (representation of information in a conceptual short-term store)
  232. unitary-resource models
    "models that assume that all activities draw on an undifferentiated
  233. varied mapping (VM)
    "when stimuli are variably mapped (VM)
  234. ventriloquism effect
    the effect that sounds are sometimes mislocalized when conflicting visual information about the source of the sound is presented
  235. vigilance decrement
    a drop in task performance during the first 30 minutes of performing a sustained attention task
  236. vigilance task
    a sustained attention task in which an observer monitors a display for rare events over an extended period of time
  237. virtual reality
    "environments that manipulate sensory stimuli
  238. visual dominance
    "when competing visual and other (e.g.
  239. visual marking
    the “marking” of distractor elements presented before the rest of search display such that they do not affect the search for a target
  240. visual search
    a search task in which the memory-set size is one and the display size is varied. Individuals are assumed to search the displayed elements and to compare them with the stimulus held in memory to determine whether or not an item in the display matches the item held in memory
  241. visuo-spatial sketchpad
    a component of working memory (Baddeley (1986) used for storing and manipulating non-verbal information
  242. voluntarism
    "description by Wundt (1907) of his school of psychology
  243. working memory
    "conceived of as a memory buffer (or storage mechanism) that holds a small amount of information while it is being 'worked on' or processed. Thus
  244. workload
    the portion of operator processing capacity or resources that is actually required for performance of a task or group of tasks
  245. z-score
    "a score that expresses an individual's performance on a task relative to the performance of other individuals. This score is calculated by taking the deviation of the individual's raw score from the group mean