Card Set Information

2013-02-13 05:52:20
Cognition Attention

Cognition Attention
Show Answers:

  1. "ability
    ""a basic characteristic of an individual that limits the level of performance on a task when maximal performance is attempted";
  2. acceptability (mental workload)
    a criterion for the selection of workload measures. In order for a workload measure to be reliable those with whom the measure is used must find its use acceptable """;
  3. "alertness
    ""preparedness to respond to a specific stimulus. According to Sanders’s (1983) energetic model of information processing
  4. "apperception
    ""an act that is necessary for an individual to become conscious of a perceptual event (i.e. for “entry into the inner focus”) """;
  5. arousal
    physiological readiness for activity ;
  6. assumption of pure insertion
    the assumption that the insertion of an additional process does not alter the basic structure of a task; required for application of the subtraction method
  7. "attention
    ""a multi-faceted construct variously defined as all aspects of human cognition that are under the control of the individual the application of limited capacity or processing resources and ways of dealing with constraints on limited capacity processing";
  8. attentional blink
    a deficit in reporting the second of two targets presented with rapid serial visual presentation when the second target occurs about 200-500 ms after the first
  9. attentional control
    the selective application of processing resources to specific tasks or stimuli
  10. attentional gradient metaphor
    a conception of attention as a distribution of resources across a particular spatial region. The concentration of attention at a particular point in space is a function of the allocation of resources within the entire display space across time.
  11. "attentional narrowing ""
    the tendency of people in high-stress situations to restrict their attention to an inappropriately small set of displays or information sources ";
  12. attentional set
    readiness to perform a particular task with a particular sort of stimulus;
  13. attentional spotlight metaphor
    ""a conception of attention as a spotlight that can be moved across different regions of space. Items within the range of the spotlight receive preferential processing. ";
  14. auditory monitoring task
    a task in which subjects listen to streams of auditory stimuli and indicate when they have heard a target; Usually performed under noisy conditions
  15. augmented feedback
    supplementary feedback provided for a continuous task in real time in order to enhance an operator's perception of the manner in which the task was performed
  16. automatic attention response
    a process that allows the automatic attraction of attention to a specific stimulus";" In search tasks
  17. "automatic processing
    ""according to the dual-process theory of Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) a type of information processing characterized as fast parallel relatively effortless not limited by short-term memory capacity and largely not under direct conscious control";" Automatic processing develops as the result of consistently processing stimuli over many learning trials """
  18. "Baddeleys model of working memory
    ""a model of working memory consisting of a visuo-spatial sketchpad responsible for storing and manipulating visual images a phonological (or articulatory) loop to store and manipulate speech-based information and a central executive which acts as an all-purpose attentional controller that is presumed to supervise and coordinate the work of the visuo-spatial sketchpad and phonological loop """;
  19. "beta (bias)
    ""In signal detection theory an index (b) of the response criterion. It is the ratio of the likelihood that the sensory evidence contained in an observation arose from the presentation of the signal to the likelihood that it arose only from noise or background events. Assuming that the sensory evidence is normally distributed with different means for signal and noise beta = ordinate at Z(hit) / ordinate at Z(false alarm) where Z(x) is the z-score corresponding to the measured proportion x. ";
  20. brain-computer interface (BCI)*
    an interface that relies on measurement of brain activity to enable interaction with a computer";
  21. central executive
    a component of Baddeleys working memory model. Sometimes called the “attentional controller” ";
  22. "change blindness
    ""the inability to see a change in two scenes presented before and after a global or local transient (e.g. two photographs separated by a block screen) unless attention is focused on the location of the changed element """;
  23. "choice-reaction time tasks
    ""tasks in which more than one stimulus (e.g. two or more lights or tones) are presented each of which requiring a different response (e.g. different key presses)""";
  24. "chunk
    ""a term used to describe a unit of memory. According to Miller (1956) memory is limited not by the number of physical units such as letters syllables or words but by the number of meaningful chunks """;
  25. "CODE surface
    ""in the CODE theory of visual attention the distribution of item features over space. The height of the surface at any point represents the probability of sampling the features of the items at that point. Attention samples features from among the above-threshold regions of the CODE surface. ";
  26. CODE Theory of Visual Attention (Logan 1996)""
    a theory that integrates space-based and object-based approaches to visual attention. It is based on Bundesens (1990) theory of visual attention and Logans contour detection (CODE) theory of perceptual grouping by proximity ";
  27. compensatory costs
    effects of mental load (such as such as increased sympathetic activation or feelings of effort or strain) separate from those seen on task performance ;
  28. computer tomography (CT)
    a technique for producing computer-generated X-ray image of structures of soft tissues such as the brain ;
  29. "conjunctive (conjunction) search
    ""search for a target defined by a conjunction of features (e.g. search for a red line among red circles and green lines). Characterized by relatively inefficient search such that search time increases with the number of items in the display """;
  30. "connectionism
    ""an information processing approach to the study of learning and memory in which processing is modelled by collections of simple interconnected processing elements. ";
  31. consistent mapping (CM) task
    a task in which items or task characteristics are always to be responded to in the same manner. For example in visual search the mapping is consistent when a target stimulus e.g. the letter “A” if present is always a target and never a distractor";
  32. contention scheduling
    in Norman and Shallices (1986) model a more or less passive process that emerges naturally as a result of the way schemas are learned and performed and that directly activates and orders action schemas which are linked to each other with both inhibitory and excitatory connections """;
  33. "controlled processing
    ""according to the dual-process theory of Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) a type of information processing characterized as slow serial relatively effortful limited by short-term memory capacity and largely under direct conscious control """;
  34. cortical tone
    the neuropsychological term for arousal ;
  35. covert orienting
    directing attention to a point in space other than that to which the eyes are directed ;
  36. cross-modal attention
    an aspect of attention that is not specific to any particular modality ;
  37. "cross-modal cuing
    ""a paradigm in which the effects of a cue in one modality (e.g. vision) are examined for a target in a different modality (e.g. audition) """;
  38. "cross-talk
    ""effects of variation on one dimension or stimulus on the classification of another dimension or stimulus. For example a bright light accompanied by a sharp sound may be judged as being brighter than the same light accompanied by a dull sound";
  39. cross-training
    a method of training in teams in which team members are trained in each others functions
  40. cue-onset asynchrony
    the time elapsed between the onset of a cue and the onset of a target
  41. d'
    In signal detection theory a parametric index of detectability. The signal and noise distributions are assumed to have different means and d is the distance between these means that is d'= Z(false alarms) - Z(detections) where Z(x) is the Z score corresponding to an observed proportion x """;
  42. "data-limited process
    ""characteristic of a task in which the availability of resources has no effect on performance because (a) the perceptual quality of the data is so poor that it acts as a limiting factor in performance"; (b) the task relies upon knowledge of limited quality or (c) the tasks are already at the floor or ceiling level of performance
  43. detection task
    a task in which the participant is instructed to detect the presence of any one of a pre-specified set of stimuli or stimulus characteristics
  44. diagnosticity
    term applied to measurement procedures and indicating the capability to discriminate among different varieties of a process. Used in particular to refer to the capability of a workload assessment technique to distinguish the levels of loading imposed on separate information processing capacities or resources.
  45. dichotic listening paradigm
    a task in which two separate auditory signals are presented separately to the two ears. Typically participants are instructed to attend to the stimulus presented to one ear and ignore the other """;
  46. "difficulty insensitivity
    ""characteristic of two timeshared tasks in which increases in the difficulty of one of them (Task A) leaves the performance of the other (Task B) unaffected and has the same effect on Task A as it does in single-task conditions. It often suggests that the two tasks are using separate resources """;
  47. digit symbol subtest of the WAIS
    a sensitive task to evaluate speed of information processing in which symbols are filled in for digits according to a key provided at the top of the test ;
  48. display monitoring and scanning models
    models for the way in which a human operator divides his/her attention among a number of information sources to accomplish the task objectives. These models are also called attention allocation models ;
  49. display salience
    the degree to which particular stimulus features in a display will be attended to and acted upon ;
  50. display size
    the number of stimuli presented in a given display in a visual search experiment ;
  51. distractor
    the stimuli in a task that are not targets and are meant to be ignored ;
  52. divided attention
    the division of attentional resources to perform simultaneous tasks ;
  53. Donders subtractive method
    a method of determining the time required to perform a particular process by measuring the time to perform a task which includes that process and subtracting from it the time to perform a task which does not include the process but which is otherwise identical ;
  54. "double dissociation
    ""an interaction between treatments and treatment groups in which one patient or group is able to carry out one task (e.g. reading) but not another (e.g. object recognition) whereas another patient or group shows the reverse pattern. A double dissociation is interpreted as strong evidence for functional separability of the two processes """;
  55. dual-task decrement
    a decrease in performance in one task when it is performed together with another task instead of in isolation. The term is also used to refer to a greater dual-task decrement in older as compared to younger performers ;
  56. early selection
    attentional selection of certain stimuli for further processing based on basic perceptual features of the stimuli ;
  57. ease of use
    a criterion for the selection of workload measures. Based on the ease of administration of the workload assessment procedure ;
  58. echoic memory
    auditory sensory memory holding an ear-specific representation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus for up to 150-350 ms after the auditory stimulation has been terminated. ;
  59. ecological interface design
    design ideology that focuses on the constraints in the task environment that are relevant to the user rather than creating arbitrary symbolic representations of the “real” environment ;
  60. effector
    final body part involved in a response ;
  61. effort
    an energetic resource that directly influences the efficiency of response selection. May be likened to conscious processing. ;
  62. electrodermal activity
    the electrical activity of the skin ;
  63. "electroencephalogram (EEG)
    ""recording of the brain's electrical activity (the ongoing electrical activity of the brain that can he recorded from the scalp via electrodes)";" usually analysed by decomposing the EEG into its constituent frequency components e.g. alpha or beta """
  64. "emergent feature view
    ""The view that displays that capitalize on an emergent feature (a feature that is only present (“emerges”) as a result of the way in which multiple elements of a display or multiple displays are aligned or grouped) reduce attentional demands that as a user must devote to a multi-element display because the operator can monitor the global property rather than the individual components. ";
  65. endogenous orienting
    orienting of the eyes or of attention on the basis of intention. In endogenous orienting attention is not automatically captured by a stimulus but is intentionally allocated to a stimulus or position """;
  66. "energetic processes
    ""processes having to do with the amount of energy capacity or mental resources devoted to a task ";
  67. error-related negativity (ERN)*
    a negative component in the EEG which peaks 50-100 ms after an error has been made";" thought to reflect the comparison of the actual and required responses"""
  68. event-related brain potential (ERP)
    electrical activity recorded at the scalp that occurs in response to (and is measured with respect to) an external stimulus event. ;
  69. exogenous orienting
    orienting of the eyes or of attention in response to an external stimulus ;
  70. "explicit memory test
    ""a memory test in which the rememberer is asked to reflect upon a particular episode in the past (e.g. report which words were presented on a specific list) """;
  71. extinction
    a condition in which a stimulus presented in the hemifield contralateral to a brain lesion is poorly reported when a second stimulus is also presented to the patient ;
  72. false alarm
    the incorrect reporting that a wanted signal has occurred ;
  73. "fatigue after-effects
    ""the tendency of people to show a preference for using low-cost strategies for performing other unrelated tasks after having performed a fatiguing or stressful task """;
  74. feature integration theory
    a theory of visual search in which attention must be allocated to stimulus locations in order to integrate the features of the stimulus presented at that location ;
  75. "feature search
    ""search for a target which differs from all distractors on the basis of a single feature such as color or shape. ";
  76. filter theory
    Broadbent’s early-selection theory of attention in which information is initially held in a preattentive temporary store
  77. flanker validity effect
    the finding that flankers can influence response time to a target when they are correlated with a given target. The effect can occur even when no responses are assigned to the flankers themselves
  78. flanker-compatibility effect
    the finding that responses to a target flanked by distractors (flankers) are slower when the flankers are assigned to a response different than that of the target relative to when the flankers are associated with the same response as the target or with no response at all
  79. fluency test
    a simple neuropsychological test of executive function in which the patient is asked to produce as many as possible exemplars of a category within one minute
  80. focused attention
    attention required to attend to a relevant subset of possible information sources and to ignore all else
  81. go or no-go reaction (Donders’ c reaction)
    The task is to respond to only one stimulus of a set of two or more stimuli.
  82. head-up display (HUD)
    a display which superimposes a virtual image of the information display (the near domain) on the central area in which the outside world (the far domain) is viewed in order to place important display information in close proximity
  83. heart rate
    measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as beats pet minute or as inter-beat interval the time interval between heart beats """;
  84. heart-rate variability
    beat-to-beat variation in the heart rhythm ;
  85. iconic memory
    a memory buffer in which items from a briefly flashed array may reside for up to about 800 ms ;
  86. ideomotor compatibility
    said to be present when stimuli closely resemble the sensory feedback that results when the responses assigned to them are made ;
  87. "ignored repetition trial
    ""in the negative priming paradigm a trial on which an object that served as a distractor on the previous trial is now presented as the target """;
  88. illusory conjunctions
    the illusion that a certain stimulus was present in a display that results from incorrectly combining features of stimuli that were present in the display ;
  89. implicit learning
    learning without intention to do so ;
  90. implicit memory test
    a test of memory that does not require that rememberers consciously refer back to a particular episode in the past ;
  91. infarct (stroke)
    the obstruction of an artery in the brain ;
  92. information theory
    a theory in which information is quantified as the reduction in uncertainty. ;
  93. "inhibition of return
    ""the finding that responses to a target presented at a location where an uninformative cue event occurred are slower than responses to targets at other locations when the period between the presentations of the cue and target is longer than about 300 ms. ";
  94. inhibitory tagging
    a hypothetical process of tagging items in a display as having already been checked during a search for a specified target
  95. Instance Theory of Automaticity
    a theory of skill acquisition in which performance speeds up as a function of practice because more and more instances are collected as time goes on which has the effect of making retrieval of the appropriate information faster and easier """;
  96. "intentional forgetting paradigm
    ""a paradigm in which participants are cued to forget some of the items presented in the course of the experiment (also called directed forgetting)";
  97. time-interval production task
    a task that requires a subject to generate a series of regular time intervals by performing a motor (e.g. finger tapping) or vocal response at a specific rate. Used to measure mental workload
  98. intrusiveness
    a criterion for the selection of workload measures. Intrusion of the workload measurement process into actual task performance should be minimal
  99. late selection
    attentional selection of certain stimuli for further processing based on higher level properties of stimuli such as their meaning
  100. latent inhibition
    the observation that the repeated presentation a specific stimulus that has no significance in a pre-task performed before the criterion task renders the learning of a predictive relationship involving this stimulus in a subsequent task more difficult
  101. lateral masking
    the finding that presenting items adjacent to a target renders the target more difficult to detect
  102. lateralized readiness potential (LRP)
    electrical activity recorded above the primary motor areas prior to the execution of a response. Relatively high contralateral activity to the side of a required response hand indicates that motor activation is larger for the required response whereas higher ipsilateral activity indicates that motor activation is larger for the incorrect response. The computation of the LRP can be time-locked to either the onset of the stimulus or to the response """;
  103. line bisection test
    a test of neglect in which patients are asked to mark the midpoint of a number of lines. Patients with neglect make systematic errors ;
  104. load profile
    a description of the mental load imposed by a task constructed by pairing the task of interest with a variety of secondary tasks ;
  105. "loading-task paradigm
    ""a secondary-task paradigm in which the emphasis is placed on the secondary task which is assumed to lead to degradations in primary-task performance and different aspects of primary-task performance are measured. For a given level of secondary-task loading performance of more difficult primary tasks will be degraded to a greater extent than will performance of less difficult tasks. ";
  106. magnetoencephalography (MEG)
    a technique for recording the ongoing very weak magnetic fields generated by neuronal currents in the brain";
  107. memory search
    a task in which items held in memory are compared with a displayed item to determine whether the displayed item is a member of the memory set. ";
  108. memory set
    a number of elements held in memory for subsequent recall or comparison with an item presented within a display
  109. memory span
    the number of items that can on average be remembered without rehearsal """;
  110. "mental set
    ""the contextual setting (intention or goal) that determines which of the large number of responses a given stimulus may evoke """;
  111. mental workload
    the information processing demands imposed by the performance of cognitive tasks. Commonly defined as the difference between the information processing capacity required for task performance and the capacity available at any given time ;
  112. mood-congruent memory
    the finding that people tend to remember information that is congruent with their mood state better than information that is incongruent with the current state ;
  113. motor program
    a set of muscle commands put in place before an action is begun and that allow the action to be carried out uninfluenced by peripheral feedback ;
  114. "multiple-resources framework
    ""the view that different sorts of tasks or different task components draw on separate resources with their own distinct capacity reserves """;
  115. negative priming
    longer reaction time to a target in a probe display when it has previously appeared as a distractor in a prime display relative to a target that was not also present in the prime display ;
  116. "neglect
    ""a neurological disorder in which a patient following brain injury shows an impairment in processing stimuli contralateral to the brain damage """;
  117. neuroergonomics*
    cognitive neuroscience applied to understanding brain and behavior in work-relevant tasks.;
  118. neurological inhibition
    inhibition at a neural level in which the activation level of neurons is lowered due to inhibitory connections with other neurons ;
  119. "object file
    ""in Treismans Feature Integration Theory a collection of features that is assembled as the result of attention being applied to the region where the features are present. Features in the object file are compared with representations of objects in memory in order to identify stimuli present in a display """;
  120. "oddball paradigm
    ""a paradigm widely used in ERP research in which a series of one standard stimulus is repeated and occasionally replaced by a different oddball stimulus. """;
  121. "orthogonal cuing paradigm
    ""a cuing paradigm used in cross-modal cuing paradigms in order to dissociate the location of the cue from judgments of the location of the target. For example a cue might indicate the upper or lower two of four possible stimuli and the subject must indicate whether a target occurs on the right or the left """;
  122. "overt orienting
    ""a change in the positioning of the senses (e.g. by making head or eye movements) carried out with the goal of improving perception
  123. "P3 component of the ERP
    ""A positive component of the ERP occurring about 300 ms after stimulus presentation. The peak amplitude of the P3 is thought to reflect the endpoint of stimulus evaluation. The component has been interpreted as reflecting processes involved in memory updating but its amplitude has also been shown to be affected by variables such as task complexity and stimulus intensity. ";
  124. parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
    the branch of the autonomic nervous system dedicated to conserving and maintaining bodily resources
  125. part training
    a method of instruction in which a trainee practices some component or set of components of a criterion task prior to practicing or performing the whole task
  126. partial-report superiority effect
    the finding that the percentage of letters reported from a briefly presented display is higher when a cue is given indicating a subset of letters to report than when all letters should be reported.
  127. PASAT
    the Paced Serial Addition Test. A clinical test of divided attention in which auditorily presented digits have to be remembered and added together
  128. perceptual-load hypothesis
    The hypothesis that whether selection is early or late depends on the perceptual load imposed by the task. Irrelevant stimuli are fully identified when perceptual load is low but when perceptual load is high they can be filtered such that full processing (e.g. semantic processing) does not occur """;
  129. "performance operating characteristic (POC)
    ""a plot of performance on one task against performance on a second task with which it is timeshared under conditions in which maximum effort is devoted to the performance of the two tasks and the relative allocation of effort is varied between the them """;
  130. peripheral nervous system
    that part of the nervous system consisting of all neurons outside the skull and spinal column ;
  131. phonological loop
    part of working memory used to store and manipulate speech-based information ;
  132. power law of practice
    the phenomenon that performance in a task improves as a power function of the number of trials of practice ;
  133. primary-task technique
    a technique for measuring mental workload in which the influence of additional task demands on performance of the primary task are measured ;
  134. "prime
    ""a stimulus presented before another target and which is expected to affect processing of the subsequent target. ";
  135. priming effects
    effects of a stimulus presented at one point in time on the processing of a stimulus presented at a different point in time
  136. principle of moving components
    a principle of display design that moving elements of a display should move in the direction that is consistent with the users mental model
  137. principle of pictorial realism
    a principle of display design that the display should visually depict the item it is supposed to represent
  138. probe (probe display)
    a target for a task. Probe targets follow prime targets in priming tasks; the word is generally used when there are multiple events in a trial. See also: probe reaction time paradigm
  139. probe-dot procedure
    a means of measuring attentional allocation to a particular region of space by measuring reaction time to a visual probe at that location
  140. probe-reaction time paradigm
    the paradigm developed by Posner and Boies (1971) in which reaction time to a target (the probe) is measured during the performance of another primary task. Used to profile the capacity demands of the primary task """;
  141. probe-signal paradigm
    a technique to study auditory detection in which the presentation of the target is followed by a two-interval forced choice task. ;
  142. procedural frame hypothesis
    the hypothesis that task goals provide a framework into which means to accomplish a task are assimilated to perform mental activities ;
  143. procedural learning
    learning evidenced by improvements in the execution of task elements and presumably involving a different memory system than the declarative learning of facts and instructions ;
  144. procedural memory
    a memory system that enables retention of learned associations between stimuli and responses and supports adaptive responses to the environment ;
  145. prospective memory
    remembering to perform an act in the future ;
  146. "proximity compatibility principle
    ""the guideline that tasks that require information integration will benefit from integrated displays whereas tasks that require the independent processing of two or more variables or the focusing of attention on one while ignoring others will benefit from more separate displays """;
  147. psychological refractory period (PRP) effect
    the slowing in reaction time to the second of two tasks when the second task is performed in temporal contiguity with the first ;
  148. pupillometry
    the measurement of the diameter of the pupil; used a s a measurement of mental workload
  149. "rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)
    ""a presentation technique in which simple visual items such as letters words or pictures are presented one after the other at the same location at a rate of about 10 items per second """;
  150. reactive inhibition
    inhibition that arises as a result of performing some process ;
  151. "reliability
    ""the degree to which a measurement procedure when repeated or replicated in the same situation and with the same performer gives the same result. ";
  152. resources
    a hypothetical construct related to mental effort and often used to explain differences in single- and dual-task performance. Resources are by definition limited and demands on resources increase as a task is made more difficult. Resource investment in a task of constant difficulty can to some extent be increased as the operator tries harder. ";
  153. response criterion
    in signal detection theory the internal standard or decision criterion against which the observer judges if the sensory evidence gathered during an observation should be reported as signal or noise. Traditionally assumed to be under the observer's control and sensitive to instructions pay-offs and the relative probabilities of the events. ";
  154. response-selection bottleneck model
    a model of dual-task processing which states that response selection can only occur for one task at a time
  155. SAGAT
    The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique. A broad memory-probe technique for assessing situation awareness in which task performance (usually in a simulator) is momentarily stopped in order to ask performers various questions about their current perception of the situation.
  156. schema
    generalized procedure for carrying out actions. According to Norman (1981) they embody both motor programs and rules for selecting between specific versions of motor programs. """;
  157. search task
    a detection task in which stimuli (targets and distracters) are presented above sensory threshold so that each is clearly identifiable ;
  158. secondary task
    a task that is performed concurrently with a primary task to assess primary-task workload ;
  159. secondary-task methodology
    a method of assessing resource or task demands by having performers carry out a second task while performing the primary task of interest ;
  160. "semantic priming
    ""a prime activates information that is stored in long- term memory. Semantic priming refers to the presentation of some word that activates the semantic concepts associated with that word. For example presenting the word 'mouse' activates semantic information associatively connected in long-term memory with that word such as cheese cat etc """;
  161. discrimination
    the capability of a measure to discriminate among different levels of a process of interest or levels of workload ;
  162. sensitivity (a criterion for the selection of workload measures)
    A measure is sensitive when it can detect subtle changes in workload ;
  163. sensory memory
    modality specific memory stores in which information can be briefly held ;
  164. "set-size function
    ""the function relating performance to the number of items in a display or memory set. In visual search tasks the slope of the function represents the efficiency of the search """;
  165. shadowing task
    a task in which a listener repeats back auditorily presented stimuli (usually words) ;
  166. "short-term conceptual memory
    ""a proposed """"durable storage that enables the rapid computation of post-categorical meaningful representations of perceived stimuli. """;
  167. short-term consolidation
    The process that ensures that perceived information can be remembered and reported ;
  168. "signal detection theory
    ""as advanced by Green and Swets (1966) this likens the detection of a signal in noise or the discrimination between two signals to a statistical decision between confusable alternatives. Abandoning the idea that perceptual judgements depend solely on a sensory threshold and introducing instead the idea of a variable response threshold it posits the notion that there are separate sensory and decision processes in perception the sensory processes indexed by detectability measures such as d' the decision processes by a criterion measure such as beta """;
  169. "Simon effect
    ""increased reaction time and decreased accuracy for a stimulus a stimulus presented in a location opposite to the response required to that stimulus as compared to when the stimulus is presented in a location that corresponds to the response location. For example when the presentation of the letter T requires a right-side keypress response responses will be quicker and more accurate when the T is presented on the right side of the display rather than on the left """;
  170. Donders reaction;"
    ""a task in which only one response is required e.g. press the key when the light appears."""
  171. simultanagnosia
    a neurological disorder in which patients are unable to simultaneously perceive the different aspects of an object or a visual scene ;
  172. single channel theory
    an early view of human attentional processes that proposed that humans could only process one channel of information at a time. It provides a useful characterization of human performance in some circumstances in which the information processing demands of the tasks in question are extremely high ;
  173. situation awareness
    a persons awareness and understanding of a dynamic situation including the ability to project the status of elements in the situation in the near future ;
  174. slip of action (action slips)
    an error that is made as a result of the inappropriate application of a learned action ;
  175. span of apprehension
    the number of items that can be apprehended during a single glance ;
  176. spatial Stroop effect
    the relative difficulty in naming locations when the ;
  177. "speed-accuracy trade-off
    ""the inverse relation of reaction time and accuracy such that in a given task increases in response speed are generally accompanied by reduced accuracy of performance. """;
  178. split-span technique
    a technique used to study selective attention in which a list of items to be remembered is split into two shorter lists for independent presentation to the two ears. The listener is instructed to report all items heard in both ears ;
  179. "steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs)*
    ""steady-state EEG potentials evoked by rapidly changing repetitive stimulation""";
  180. "Sternbergs additive factors method
    ""a method for determining which stages are involved in a particular information processing task. Several factors (i.e. independent variables) are manipulated and the effects of these manipulations on time to perform the task are examined. If two factors have additive effects (i.e. if the effect of one factor does not depend on the level of another factor) they are assumed to affect different stages of processing. If the factors interact such that the effect of one factor depends on the level of the other the two factors are assumed to affect the same stage of processing """;
  181. "stop-signal paradigm
    ""an experimental paradigm in which people are asked to perform a simple task such as pressing one of two keys when they see an X and the other key when an O is presented. On trials in which a stop signal is presented (e.g. a tone) the response to either letter is to be withheld. The primary dependent variable of interest is whether people can withhold responses after receiving a stop signal. """;
  182. "strategic response-deferment
    ""in the EPIC model of task performance a response strategy in which prior to the start of a dual-task trial Task 1 is given priority and Task 2 is put into deferred mode meaning that no information pertaining to Task 2 response selection will be sent to motor processors """;
  183. "Stroop effect
    ""slower responses to name a color when the color is printed in the shape of a different color name as compared to naming color patches or the color of non-color words. See Stroop test";
  184. Stroop test
    a test of selective attention or susceptibility to interfering information. The time to name color patches and to read color names is compared with the time to name the color of color names printed in conflicting colors (e.g. naming the color green for the word “red” printed in green ink) """;
  185. "structural alteration effects
    ""characteristic of two timeshared tasks in which a discrete alternation in the structure of one of them (e.g. a shift from visual to auditory modality) changes the amount of dual-task interference between them but does not produce any change in the single-task difficulty of the altered task (or the alteration changes difficulty in the opposite direction to the observed change in dual-task interference) """;
  186. structural interference
    dual-task interference due to the requirement to make similar sorts of responses ;
  187. "subsidiary-task paradigm
    ""one of the two principal variants of the secondary-task paradigm that is used to evaluate workload. In the subsidiary-task paradigm emphasis during concurrent performance of the primary and secondary tasks is placed on maintaining primary-task performance at single-task baselines. To the extent that processing resources remain unused by the primary task there will be spare capacity or resources available for secondary-task performance. Secondary-task performance levels
  188. "supervisory attention system (SAS)
    ""in Norman and Shallices (1986) model of action control
  189. supra-modal attentional controller
    a hypothetical process by which attention can be directed regardless of the modality of the stimulus ;
  190. switching costs
    increases in reaction time and error rates on a task after switching to it from another task as compared to when the task is performed in isolation ;
  191. sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
    one of the branches of the autonomic nervous system. The basic function of the SNS is the mobilization of the body to meet emergencies ;
  192. target
    the member (or members) of the memory set that are actually present among the stimuli during a trial ;
  193. task alternation
    an operator uses a scanning or switching strategy to timeshare two tasks ;
  194. "task integration
    ""an operator timeshares two tasks by focusing attentional control on a common element or structure (e.g. rhythm) """;
  195. task set
    the configuration of various “modules” in the brain so as to perform the appropriate action with a given stimuli ;
  196. "task-set switching paradigm
    ""a paradigm in which participants switch between the performance of two tasks in either a predictable (e.g. alternating) or unpredictable manner """;
  197. "time-estimation task
    ""these tasks require a subject to estimate or judge a specific time interval usually 5 to 10 seconds. The subject typically is cued to begin the estimation of the interval and generates a response to indicate that the interval has elapsed """;
  198. timesharing
    efficiently allocating processing resources to component tasks at the appropriate times ;
  199. "filter attenuation theory (Treisman 1964)
    ""A theory of selective attention in which the early selective filter does not completely block out unwanted information but only attenuates or reduces the strength of unattended stimuli. Usually attenuated information will not reach consciousness but when the information is familiar or fits the context of the attended information it may be identified. ";
  200. two-stage model of the attentional blink
    a model of the attentional blink in which all targets are processed in a first stage (representation of information in a conceptual short-term store) but in which transfer to second stage processing (consolidation of the information in a reportable form) occurs on a limited-capacity basis """;
  201. "unitary-resource models
    ""models that assume that all activities draw on an undifferentiated limited-capacity attentional resource """;
  202. "varied mapping (VM)
    ""when stimuli are variably mapped (VM) that is stimuli require responses that constantly change during training automatic processing does not develop and performance shows little change. For example in VM training
  203. ventriloquism effect
    the effect that sounds are sometimes mislocalized when conflicting visual information about the source of the sound is presented ;
  204. vigilance decrement
    a drop in task performance during the first 30 minutes of performing a sustained attention task ;
  205. vigilance task
    a sustained attention task in which an observer monitors a display for rare events over an extended period of time ;
  206. "virtual reality
    ""environments that manipulate sensory stimuli such as visual auditory and haptic stimuli to provide the observer with a sensation of interacting with the actual world """;
  207. "visual dominance
    ""when competing visual and other (e.g. auditory or proprioceptive) stimulation are present the visual information captures perception such that non-visual events may go undetected or may be distorted """;
  208. visual marking
    the marking of distractor elements presented before the rest of search display such that they do not affect the search for a target ;
  209. visual search
    a search task in which the memory-set size is one and the display size is varied. Individuals are assumed to search the displayed elements and to compare them with the stimulus held in memory to determine whether or not an item in the display matches the item held in memory ;
  210. visuo-spatial sketchpad
    a component of working memory (Baddeley (1986) used for storing and manipulating non-verbal information ;
  211. "voluntarism
    ""description by Wundt (1907) of his school of psychology which emphasized volition. He held that psychological processes can be understood only in terms of their goals or consequences """;
  212. "working memory
    ""conceived of as a memory buffer (or storage mechanism) that holds a small amount of information while it is being 'worked on' or processed. Thus working memory is not just a passive storage location but a place where information is being mentally manipulated """;
  213. workload
    the portion of operator processing capacity or resources that is actually required for performance of a task or group of tasks ;
  214. "z-score
    ""a score that expresses an individual's performance on a task relative to the performance of other individuals. This score is calculated by taking the deviation of the individual's raw score from the group mean and dividing by the standard deviation """;
  215. Bundesens Theory of Visual Attention
    a model of attention in which perceptual items and categorizations of the items are simultaneously selected. In this model selection implies a choice among categorizations of perceptual inputs. ;
  216. "central nervous system
    all the cells within the bony structures of the skull and the spinal column including the brain the brain stem and the spinal cord """;