What are the 4 steps in the formation of a biofilm?
A living organism's attempt to maintain a stable internal state is known as what?
Membrane enclosed compartments in Eukaryotic cells are called ___.
Based on several chemical & biochemical differences, ___ developed a three domain system for classification.
Woese's 3 domain system broke prokaryotes into ___ & ___ & placed what 4 kingdoms into Eukarya?
Bacteria & Archaea
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
An organism's species name consists of what 2 parts?
Genus & Specific Epithet
The ____ is used to measure dimensions of bacterial, ptrotozoal & fungal cell while the ____ is commonly used to express viral sizes.
The instrument most widely used to observe microorganisms is the ___ ___.
In a light microscope, light passes thru several lens systems that ___ & ___ the object being observed.
Magnify & Resolve
The ability of a microscope to transmit light w/o variation & allow closely spaced objects to be clearly distinguished is known as ____ ____.
A ____ is a complex, metabolically cooperative community made up of peacefully coexisting bacterial species.
The ability of bacteria to sense their numbers & then communicate & coordinate behavior, including gene expression, via signaling molecules.
What is bioremediation?
The use of biofilms to remove or clean up chemically contaminated environments.
All chemical reactions occurring in an organism or cell
Protein synthesis is accomplished by the ____ according to genetic instructions received fr DNA
Bacterial cells have a ___,___ DNA molecule w/o an ___ ___ where as eukaryotes have multiple linear chromosomes enclosed by membrane env in nuc.
Although protein synthesis is the same, structurally bacterial ribosomes are ____ ___ their counterparts in eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic & bacterial cells have subcellular compartments. In eukaryotes they are called ___ but in bacteria they are ___ ___or ___ ___.
Not readily visible
Eukaryotes utilize an endomembrane sys to transport protein & lipid cargo. Bacteria however utilize ____ surrounded by a ___ shell for this purpose.
A process called ___ ___ converts chem energy into cellular energy for cellular work
Cell Resp occurs in mitochondria & chloroplasts in eukaryotes, but bacteria & archaea lack mitochondria so it occurs where?
Cytosol & cell membrane
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton composed of microfilaments fr the centrosome gives cell structure & assists w/moving materials around the cell. How does the bacterial version compare?
Bacteria have no cytoskeleton
Cell motility is bacterial cells is accomplished by Bacterial ___ & in eukaryotes it is accomplished by Eukaryotic ___or ___.
Flagella or Cilia
T or F Water balance is accomplished by the same structure in both Bacteria & Eukaryotes. What structure accomplishes this task?
Linnaeus IDed living organisms according to similarities & placed them in what 2 kingdoms?
Vegitalia & Animalia
In 1990, it became clear that kingdom Monera contained 2 fundamentally unrelated grps that ____ initially called what?
Bacteria & Archaebacteria
What is taxonomy?
The science of IDing, describing, naming & classifying organisms.
The 3 domain sys proposed by Carl Woese was based on what & what were they?
Data fr ribosomal RNA sequences
Bacteria, Eukarya & Archaea
What is the term given to the evolutionary hx of a species or grp of species?
Populations or grps of individuals having the same genotype are called ___.
What are antibodies?
Proteins produced by immune sys in response to a specific chem configuration
Visible light is projected thru a condenser lens & focused into sharp cone. Light then passes thru the stage, hits slide & is reflected or refracted as it passes thru the specimen & enters the obj lens to form magnified intermediate image. This type of microscopy is known as. . . .
____ refers to the increase in the apparent size of the specimen being observed.
Why is the light microscope called a compound microscope?
B/c it has several lenses
Total magnification is equal to what?
Magnification of the ocular multiplied by magnification of obj lens being used
The ___ of ___ is a measure of light bending ability of a medium.
Index of Refraction
Why do we stain bacterial cells?
B/c the cytoplasm lacks color making it hard to see cells on a bright background
The lens we look through is called the ___ lens.
The image we see just below the ocular lens is called what?
The lens that is direct at the specimen is called the ___ lens.
The condenser is located where?
Directly under the stage
Heat fixation does what 3 things?
Bonds cells to slide
Kills any organisms still alive
Increases stain absorption
What are the steps in the simple stain technique?
Cells in H2O/broth smeared on slide & allowed to dry
Flood w/basic (cationic)dye
Why is basic dye attracted to cell walls & cytoplasm?
B/c cationic dyes have pos charge & cells are primarily neg
What is one example or basic (cationic) dye?
What 3 pieces of info can be provided by contrasting blue cells against a bright background (simple stain technique)
Arrangement w/respect to other cells
In the simple stain technique the cells are stained w/basic (cationic) dye however in the neg stain technique ___ (___) dye is used & the ____ is stained.
What is the procedure for negative staining?
Mix cells on slide w/acidic dye
Push mix across face of slide & allow to air dry
What are 2 examples of acidic (anionic) dyes?
Why is the background stained on the negative stain technique?
B/C anionic dye contains a neg charge & is repelled fr the cytoplasm & cell wall
The negative stain technique provides cells that are less shriveled & distorted than simple stain. Why?
B/C this technique avoids chem reactions & heat fixation
In Gram stain technique red bacteria is (pos/neg) & violet bacteria is (pos/neg).
Red Bacteria = Gram neg
Violet Bacteria = Gram pos
What is the counter stain in Gram stain technique?
In Gram stain technique, cells are stained w/ ___ ___ & Gram's ___ solution & washed w/a ___.
What are the steps in Gram stain technique after smears are air dried & heat fixed?