Alcamo's Ch 3

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  1. What are the 4 steps in the formation of a biofilm?
    • Initial Attachment
    • Irreversible attachment
    • Maturation I
    • Maturation II
    • Dispersion
  2. A living organism's attempt to maintain a stable internal state is known as what?
  3. Membrane enclosed compartments in Eukaryotic cells are called ___.
  4. Based on several chemical & biochemical differences, ___ developed a three domain system for classification.
  5. Woese's 3 domain system broke prokaryotes into ___ & ___ & placed what 4 kingdoms into Eukarya?
    • Bacteria & Archaea
    • Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
  6. An organism's species name consists of what 2 parts?
    Genus & Specific Epithet
  7. The ____ is used to measure dimensions of bacterial, ptrotozoal & fungal cell while the ____ is commonly used to express viral sizes.
    • Micrometer
    • Nanometer
  8. The instrument most widely used to observe microorganisms is the ___ ___.
    Light Microscope
  9. In a light microscope, light passes thru several lens systems that ___ & ___ the object being observed.
    Magnify & Resolve
  10. The ability of a microscope to transmit light w/o variation & allow closely spaced objects to be clearly distinguished is known as ____ ____.
    Resolving power
  11. A ____ is a complex, metabolically cooperative community made up of peacefully coexisting bacterial species.
  12. The ability of bacteria to sense their numbers & then communicate & coordinate behavior, including gene expression, via signaling molecules.
    Quorum Sensing
  13. What is bioremediation?
    The use of biofilms to remove or clean up chemically contaminated environments.
  14. Define metabolism.
    All chemical reactions occurring in an organism or cell
  15. Protein synthesis is accomplished by the ____ according to genetic instructions received fr DNA
  16. Bacterial cells have a ___,___ DNA molecule w/o an ___ ___ where as eukaryotes have multiple linear chromosomes enclosed by membrane env in nuc.
    • Single, circular
    • Enclosed membrane
  17. Although protein synthesis is the same, structurally bacterial ribosomes are ____ ___ their counterparts in eukaryotic cells.
    Smaller than
  18. Eukaryotic & bacterial cells have subcellular compartments. In eukaryotes they are called ___ but in bacteria they are ___ ___or ___ ___.
    • Organelles
    • Not readily visible
    • Membrane enclosed
  19. Eukaryotes utilize an endomembrane sys to transport protein & lipid cargo. Bacteria however utilize ____ surrounded by a ___ shell for this purpose.
    • Microcompartments
    • Protein
  20. A process called ___ ___ converts chem energy into cellular energy for cellular work
    Cellular Respiration
  21. Cell Resp occurs in mitochondria & chloroplasts in eukaryotes, but bacteria & archaea lack mitochondria so it occurs where?
    Cytosol & cell membrane
  22. The eukaryotic cytoskeleton composed of microfilaments fr the centrosome gives cell structure & assists w/moving materials around the cell. How does the bacterial version compare?
    Bacteria have no cytoskeleton
  23. Cell motility is bacterial cells is accomplished by Bacterial ___ & in eukaryotes it is accomplished by Eukaryotic ___or ___.
    • Flagella
    • Flagella or Cilia
  24. T or F Water balance is accomplished by the same structure in both Bacteria & Eukaryotes. What structure accomplishes this task?
    • T
    • Cell wall
  25. Linnaeus IDed living organisms according to similarities & placed them in what 2 kingdoms?
    Vegitalia & Animalia
  26. In 1990, it became clear that kingdom Monera contained 2 fundamentally unrelated grps that ____ initially called what?
    • Woese
    • Bacteria & Archaebacteria
  27. What is taxonomy?
    The science of IDing, describing, naming & classifying organisms.
  28. The 3 domain sys proposed by Carl Woese was based on what & what were they?
    • Data fr ribosomal RNA sequences
    • Bacteria, Eukarya & Archaea
  29. What is the term given to the evolutionary hx of a species or grp of species?
  30. Populations or grps of individuals having the same genotype are called ___.
  31. What are antibodies?
    Proteins produced by immune sys in response to a specific chem configuration
  32. Visible light is projected thru a condenser lens & focused into sharp cone. Light then passes thru the stage, hits slide & is reflected or refracted as it passes thru the specimen & enters the obj lens to form magnified intermediate image. This type of microscopy is known as. . . .
    Bright light
  33. ____ refers to the increase in the apparent size of the specimen being observed.
  34. Why is the light microscope called a compound microscope?
    B/c it has several lenses
  35. Total magnification is equal to what?
    Magnification of the ocular multiplied by magnification of obj lens being used
  36. The ___ of ___ is a measure of light bending ability of a medium.
    Index of Refraction
  37. Why do we stain bacterial cells?
    B/c the cytoplasm lacks color making it hard to see cells on a bright background
  38. The lens we look through is called the ___ lens.
  39. The image we see just below the ocular lens is called what?
    Intermediate Image
  40. The lens that is direct at the specimen is called the ___ lens.
  41. The condenser is located where?
    Directly under the stage
  42. Heat fixation does what 3 things?
    • Bonds cells to slide
    • Kills any organisms still alive
    • Increases stain absorption
  43. What are the steps in the simple stain technique?
    • Cells in H2O/broth smeared on slide & allowed to dry
    • Heat fixation
    • Flood w/basic (cationic)dye
  44. Why is basic dye attracted to cell walls & cytoplasm?
    B/c cationic dyes have pos charge & cells are primarily neg
  45. What is one example or basic (cationic) dye?
    Methylene Blue
  46. What 3 pieces of info can be provided by contrasting blue cells against a bright background (simple stain technique)
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Arrangement w/respect to other cells
  47. In the simple stain technique the cells are stained w/basic (cationic) dye however in the neg stain technique ___ (___) dye is used & the ____ is stained.
    • Acidic (anionic)
    • Background
  48. What is the procedure for negative staining?
    • Mix cells on slide w/acidic dye
    • Push mix across face of slide & allow to air dry
    • View
  49. What are 2 examples of acidic (anionic) dyes?
    • Nigrosin
    • India Ink
  50. Why is the background stained on the negative stain technique?
    B/C anionic dye contains a neg charge & is repelled fr the cytoplasm & cell wall
  51. The negative stain technique provides cells that are less shriveled & distorted than simple stain. Why?
    B/C this technique avoids chem reactions & heat fixation
  52. In Gram stain technique red bacteria is (pos/neg) & violet bacteria is (pos/neg).
    • Red Bacteria = Gram neg
    • Violet Bacteria = Gram pos
  53. What is the counter stain in Gram stain technique?
  54. In Gram stain technique, cells are stained w/ ___ ___ & Gram's ___ solution & washed w/a ___.
    • Crystal Violet
    • Iodine
    • Decolorizer
  55. What are the steps in Gram stain technique after smears are air dried & heat fixed?
    • Stain w/crystal violet & rinsed
    • Add Gram's Iodine solution
    • Rinse w/decolorizer (95% alcohol / alcohol-acetone mix)
    • Counterstain w/safranin
  56. Prior to adding safranin in Gram staining technique, Gram-neg cells will appear ____ & Gram-pos cells will appear ____.
    • Transparent
    • Crystal Violet
  57. What are the 2 differential staining techniques we learned?
    • Gram Staining
    • Acid-Fast
  58. What staining technique is used to ID members of the genus Mycobacterium?
    Acid-fast Technique
  59. Why would we utilize the acid fast technique?
    When we encounter cells w/waxy walls the resist dyes
  60. What is the special feature of a phase-contrast light microscope?
    Special condenser throws light rays "out of phase"
  61. What objects are best observed w/a phase contrast light microscope?
    Internal structures of live unstained eukaryotic microorganisms
  62. How do objects appear when viewed through a phase-contrast light microscope?
    Unstained microorganisms w/contrasted structures
  63. What is the special feature of a dark-field light microscope?
    It utilizes a special condenser that scatters light
  64. How do objects appear when viewed w/a dark-field light microscope?
    Unstained microorganisms on a dark background
  65. Hat objects are best observed w/a dark-field light microscope?
    • Live, unstained microorganisms
    • Motility of live cells
  66. What is the special feature of a Fluorescence Light microscope?
    UV light illuminates fluorescent coated objects
  67. How do objects appear when they are viewed thru a fluorescence light microscope?
    Fluorescing microorganisms on a dark background
  68. Hat objects are best viewed w/a fluorescence light microscope?
    Outline of microorganisms coated w/fluorescent-tagged antibodies
  69. What is the special feature of a transmission electron microscope?
    Short-wavelength electron beam penetrates sections of the specimen
  70. How do objects appear when viewed w/a transmission electron microscope?
    Alternating light & dark areas contrasting internal cell structures
  71. What objects are best observed w/a transmission electron microscope & what is the magnification range?
    • Ultrathin slices of microorganisms & internal components
    • 100x - 2,000,000x
  72. What electron microscope utilizes short-wavelength electron beams to knock loose electron showers?
  73. Surfaces & textures of microorganisms & cell components are best viewed w/a ___ electron microscope.
  74. What is the term that describes the ability of organisms to maintain a stable internal state?
  75. Which on the following is NOT an organizational pattern common to all organisms (A. genetic organization/ B. protein synthesis/ C. compartmentation/ D. Microcompartments)?
  76. Which is NOT found in bacterial cells (A. ribosomes/ B. DNA/ C. mitochondria/ D. Cytoplasm)
  77. Who is considered the father of modern taxonomy?
  78. ___ was first used to catalog organisms into one of three domains.
    rRNA genes
  79. What is the name of the genus that causes syphilis?
  80. Several classes of organisms would be classified into one ___.
  81. An important method used for the rapid ID of a pathogen is ___.
    Biochemical Methods
  82. Most bacterial cells are measured using what metric sys of length?
  83. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope to what?
    See 2 close objects as separate
  84. B/f bacteria cells are simple stained & observed w/the light microscope they must be what 3 things?
    • Smeared on a slide
    • Air dried
    • Heat fixed
  85. If you want to study bacterial motility you would most likely use what type of microscope?
    A light microscope w/dark field optics
  86. If you wanted to study the surface of a bacterial cell, you would use what type of microscope?
    A scanning electron microscope
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Alcamo's Ch 3

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