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Presbyopia is a condition in which the lens of the eye loses its ability to focus, making it difficult to see objects up close.
- Involuntary, rhythmic eyeball movement
- Vision acuity (reduce vision sharpness)
- caused by use of alcohol and drugs
- effects balance & focus
- Def: A visual misalignment, failure of eyeballs to move in same direction
- S/S: hypertropia & hypotropia (eye look up/ down)
- Dx: Diplopia (double vision)
- Def: painless swelling of the eyelid
- Et: Occulusion of the meibomain glands
- Dx: causes tears to evaporate which results in dry eye
- Def: Inflamed sebbor(eyelash) gland
- S/S: causes persistant redness
- Et: Seborrhea is a breading ground for bacteria
- Dx: staphylococci of eyelash
- Def: permanent dropping of eyelid
- Et: condition caused by weakness of the cranial nerve and/or weakness of muscle that raises eyelid
- Def: Inflammation of the Conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the anterior portion
- S/S: Hyper-purulent (excess pus) & photphobia (sensitive to light)
- Dx: 'pink eye'
- Def: ocular trauma (damage to outer layer of cornea)
- S/S: painful since cornea contains many pain receptors
- Dx: dye test (fluorescent stain)
- Def: when the natural lens becomes opacified (cloudy)
- S/S: protein clumping in the lens due to 'presby'(aging)
- Dx: Retina receives a blurry image
- Def: damage to the optic nerve, often caused by elevated intraocular pressure(IOP)
- Major cause of blindness
- S/S: peripheral visions inparied
Device to measure pressure in cornea
- Main cause of vision loss in USA
- Def: Progressive deterioration of the macula of the retina
- S/S: Mild distortion of central vision
- Et: Atrophic (reduce muscle structure) changes in the macaula constitute dry macular degeneration. Abnormal blood vessels converts the disease to its wet form
- Dx: Impaired central vision
- S/S: loss of central visions
- Dx: Dye test to view blood vessels
- Def: Disorder of retinal blood vessels
- 2nd major cause of blindness in USA
- S/S: Characterized by micro-aneurysm, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and formation fo abnormal blood vessels
- Dx: Scar tissue can detach form retina
- Def: Separation of the retina from the choroid.
- S/S: new floaters & light flashes, floating spots in eye
- Dx: A posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a condition of the eye in which the vitreous membrane separates from the retina.
- Common in age 65+
- Def: Cancer of the eye region
- Et: RetinoBLASToma is the development of neoplasm of the retina
- S/S: Can cause leukocoria(white pupil) --found in pediatrics
- Et: Ocular melanoma, common in adults, is due to UV exposure
Parts of ear and purpose
- External ear: Collecting sounds waves
- Middle ear: Conductive hearing loss occurs
- Inner ear: Converting sound waves to inner nerve system
Conductive v. Sensorineural
Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (Cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain.
Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection.
- Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid is located just behind the ear.
- s/s: welling behind ear, may cause ear to stick out
- Et: Mastoiditis is usually caused by a middle ear infection (acute otitis media).
- A ruptured eardrum is an opening or hole in the eardrum, which separates
- the outer and middle ear. When the eardrum is damaged, the hearing may
- be harmed.
- s/s: Drainage from the ear, slight hearing loss
- Dx: Damage to the eardrum can also occur from: 1.A very loud noise close to the ear, such as a gunshot 2.A rapid change in ear pressure, which may occur when flying, scuba diving, or driving in the mountains 3. Foreign objects in the ear 4.Injury to the ear (such as a powerful slap or explosion)Inserting cotton-tipped swabs or small objects into the ear to clean them
- Dx; can lead to middle ear infection
Myringoplasty; Tympanoplasty (Eardrum repair)
- Eardrum repair refers to one or more surgical procedures that are done
- to correct a tear or other damage to the eardrum (tympanic membrane).
- (hardening of the ear) Otosclerosis is an abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss.
- S/S: Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
- dx: Hearing loss (middle ear=conductive hearing)
- Labyrinthitis is an ear disorder that involves irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the inner ear.
- s/s: Abnormal sensation of movement (vertigo)
- Dx: Warming and cooling the inner ear with air or water (caloric stimulation) to test eye reflexes
- Meniere's disease is an inner ear disorder that affects balance and hearing.
- s/s: (Endolymphatic hydrops) The inner ear contains fluid-filled tubes called semicircular canals, or
- labyrinths. These canals, along with a nerve in your skull, help
- interpret your body's position and maintain your balance. People who have vertigo feel as though they are spinning or moving, or that the world is spinning around them.
- Dx: Electrocochleography (EcoG) &
- Electronystagmography (ENG)
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
- Benign positional vertigo is a condition in which a person develops a
- sudden sensation of spinning, usually when moving the head. It is the
- most common cause of vertigo.
- s/s: People with this condition feel as though they are spinning or moving, or that the world is spinning around them.
- Dx: abnormal eye movements (Nystagmus=dancing eyes)
- Et: Otocomia,(def.) sends the brain confusing messages about your body's position. caused by head trauma
- Dx: Electrocochleography (EcoG) &Electronystagmography (ENG)
Seborrheic dermatitis (Dandruff in adults; Seborrheic eczema; Cradle cap in infants)
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common, inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the scalp or inside the ear. It can occur with or without reddened skin.
- Contact dermatitis is a condition in which the skin becomes red, sore, or inflamed after direct contact with a substance.
- Et: Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by exposure to a substance or material to which you have become extra sensitive or allergic.
- s/s: There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: irritant or allergic.
- Skin is also exposed to sunlight (photosensitivity)
- Outside body exposure (Exogenous) source
- Dx: Patch testing is used for certain patients who have long-term, repeated contact dermatitis. It requires three office visits and must be done by a health care provider with the experience and skill to interpret the results correctly.
- Atopic dermatitis is a long-term (chronic) skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes.
- s/s: Atopic dermatitis is due to a hypersensitivity reaction (similar to an allergy) in the skin, which leads to long-term swelling and redness (inflammation) of the skin.
- Atopic dermatitis is most common in infants.
- Dx: Type of rash and where the rash appears can depend on the age of the patient:In children younger than age 2, skin lesions begin on the face, scalp, hands, and feet. They are often crusting, bubbling, or oozing rashes that itch.In older children and adults, the rash is more commonly seen on the inside of the knees and elbows, as well as the neck, hands, and feet.
- Hives are raised, often itchy, red welts on the surface of the skin. They are usually an allergic reaction to food or medicine.
- S/s: Itching & Swelling of the surface of the skin into red- or skin-colored welts (called wheals) with clearly defined edges
- Et: When you have an allergic reaction to a substance, your body releases histamine and other chemicals into your bloodstream. This causes itching, swelling, and other symptoms.
- Chronic disease
- Dead hard skin
- Autoimmune inherited disease
- Overgrowth of dead skin cells on the skin
- causes Psoratic arthritis
- Chronic disease
- S/s: Telangiectasia (dilation of blood vessels)
- Overproduction of oily skin causes plugs traps dirty/bacteria (=comdadine)
- Caused by hormone changes
- Painful blisters
- s/s: Unilateral (one-sided) of body
- Et.: VZV in becomes dormant
- Risk factors: age 60+, low immune system, chicken pox Hx
- Tx: Tzanck test
- Occurs in upper layer of skin
- S/s: lesions on skin
- caused by MRSA
- Affects pediatric pop.
- Abscess in a pus filled sac
- Hair follicle and SUBcutaneous (in grown hair)
- Found on face, arm, neck
- Bacteria fron nora flora
- Pitting edema leaves a dent in the skin after you press the area with a finger for about 5 seconds
- Ringworm is a skin infection due to a fungus. Often, there are several patches of ringworm on your skin at once.
- s/s: Itchy, red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze.
- Ringworm can spread easily from one person to another.
- (aka Bedsore) A pressure ulcer is an area of skin that breaks down when something keeps rubbing or pressing against the skin.
- Red skin that gets worse over time & area forms a blister, then an open sore
- Tx: maggot therapy
Scabies & PediculOSIS
- def. Scabies is an easily spread skin disease caused by a very small type of mite.
- Et: Less often it can be spread by sharing clothes or bedding. Sometimes whole families are affected.Outbreaks of scabies are more common in nursing homes, nursing facilities, college dorms, and child care centers.
- PediculOSIS: lice in pediatrics
- Scabies spread by skin-to-skin contact with another person has scabies.
- def. A keloids is a growth of extra scar tissue where the skin has healed after an injury.
- Keloids can form after skin injuries from:Burns, Chicken pox, Cuts from surgery or trauma
- Common in people of color.
- def. A sebaceous cyst is a closed sac under the skin filled with a cheese-like or oily material.
- Et: Sebaceous cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles.
- A sac of cells is created into which a protein called keratin is secreted.
- Actinic keratosis is a small, rough, raised area found on skin that has been in the sun for a long period of time.
- Et: Spend a lot of time each day in the sun
- Tx: Some actinic keratoses become squamous cell skin cancer. Growths may be removed by: Burn or cut away
- A birthmark is a skin marking that is present at birth. Birthmarks include cafe-au-lait spots, moles, and mongolian spots.
- Large moles that are present at birth (congenital nevi) are more likely to become skin cancer (malignant melanoma).
- Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of non-melanoma skin cancer.
- Basal cell skin cancer is most common in people over age 40.
- s/s: Basal cell skin cancer grows slowly and is usually painless.
- Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer.
- Squamous cell cancer may occur in normal skin or in skin that has been injured or inflamed.
- s/s: The main symptom is a growing bump that may have a rough, scaly surface and flat reddish patches.The earliest form appears as a scaly, crusted, and large reddish patch (often larger than 1 inch).
- Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease.
- Et: Melanoma is caused by changes in cells called melanocytes, which produce
- a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair
- The ABCDE system can help you remember possible symptoms of melanoma:
- Asymmetry: One half of the abnormal area is different from the other half.
- Borders: The edges of the growth are irregular.
- Color: Color changes from one area to another, with shades of tan, brown, or
- black, and sometimes white, red, or blue. A mixture of colors may appear within one sore.
- Diameter: The spot is usually (but not always) larger than 6 mm in diameter -- about the size of a pencil eraser.
- Evolution: The mole keeps changing appearance.
- def. Vitiligo is a skin condition in which there is a loss of brown color (pigment) from areas of skin, resulting in irregular white patches that feel like normal skin.
- Et: Vitiligo appears to occur when immune cells destroy the cells that produce brown pigment (melanocytes).
- Vitiligo most often affects the face, elbows and knees, hands and feet, and genits. It affects both sides of the body equally.
- def: Alopecia areata is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss. It can lead to total hair loss.
- Alopecia areata is thought to be an autoimmune condition. This occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue.
- TX: HRT- Hormone Replacement Treatment