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  1. Pharmacology
    study of drugs and their actions on living organisms.
  2. Therapeutic Methods--
    Drug therapy
    tx c meds
  3. Ther. Methods--
    tx by manipulation of diet
  4. Ther. Meth.--
    tx c natural resources (heat, light, h2o)
  5. Ther. Meth.--
    Psychological therapy
    tx by identifying stressors and stress reduction tech. "talk therapy"
  6. Drug
    chem substance that has an effect on living tissues
  7. Medicine
    therapeutic drug used in prevention/tx of disease
  8. Meds from plany sources
    opiates (morphine, codeine, for pain); from white poppy plant & digitalis (tx of chf/arrythmias) from leaves of purple foxglove flower.
  9. meds from animal sources
    insulin and thyroid hormones from pig/cattle
  10. chemical name
    chem structure of drug - exact molecular makeup; most important to chemist.
  11. generic name
    simple, common, provided by USAN. Not capitalized
  12. Official name
    name as listed by FDA. usually same as generic followed by usp
  13. brand/trademark
    name given by manufacturer. R symbol. registered and only used by owner. Capitalize.
  14. FDA
    US Food and Drug Administration -- federal agency that tests and determines if drugs are safe for humans. Granted to name drugs.
  15. USP US Pharmacopeia/National Formulary NF
    standards to id, quality, strength, purity, single vol., revised annually
  16. USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug names
    usan name, pronunciation, chem formula, chem name, brand name, manufacturers, reg #, over 1000 drugs. annually.
  17. American Drug Index
    All meds in US, by Facts and Comparisons, edit yearly, info on gen/brnd/chem names.

    most useful for quick comparison of brand/generic name & availability of streghts and dosage forms
  18. American Hospital Formulary Service, Drug Info
    official reference for major organization, (public health service, dept of vets, and American Hosp Association.
  19. Drug Interaction Facts
    Most useful for drug interactions
  20. PDR Drug Facts and Comparisons
    inclusion of most current FDA-approved package insert info and for cross comparison tables of similar drugs
  21. Handbook on Injectable Drugs
    Comprehensice reference for compatibility of inj drugs.
  22. Handbook for Nonprescription Drugs
    comprehensive book on nonrx otc drugs; 3 major advantages, includes qs to ask pts to determine if tx is needed, product selection guides, pt teaching info
  23. Martindale- The complete drug reference
    text for info on drugs in current use throughout the world, includes herbs
  24. Natural meds comprehensive database
    gold standard reference for over 1000 herbal meds
  25. Physicians Desk Reference PDR
    • 1-g-manufacters index
    • 2-w-brand/gen name
    • 3-g-product category
    • 4-g-product id
    • 5-w-product info

    medwatch forms (voluntary reporting of drug a/e)
  26. Medical Letter
    brief comments on newly released drugs and findings
  27. package inserts
    fed law requiring info by approved by FDA before released, insert w ea package, new website all info
  28. nursing journals
    articles, dated, not as reliable
  29. electronic database
    growing, cd, mobile, etc, eg: Davis, National Library of Medicine
  30. Nursing Drug Handbooks
    found most nsg stations, concise, compact and redily available, source used most frequently by nsg
  31. us pharmocopeia dispensing information USPDI
    • 3 vol set,
    • 1- health professional
    • 2-info for pt
    • 3- list of fda approved drugs
  32. pharmacy
  33. tyler's honest herbal
    current, lay terms
  34. federal food, drug, and cosmetic act

    durham-humphrey amendment
    1952 -- tightened control by restricting refills, distinguised rx/otc. tightened drug distribution and mandated licensure to dispense meds
  35. def food, drug, and cosmetic act

    Kefauver-harris amendment
    • 1962 -- passed because of thalidomide tragedies (imcompletely tested drug apprived for preg, caused serious birth defects). Increased importance on clinical testing of drugs, control of distribution
    • 1- drug proven safe and effective before released
    • 2- truth in advertising
  36. Harrison Narcotics Act
    1914 -- 1st narcotic control act, regulated import, manufacture, sale and use of all opiates. "narcotics". limited use of these drugs=less drug abuse. Replaced by controlled substances act.
  37. Controlled Substances Act
    1970 - replaced 50 other laws, 5 schedules, improved reg, man, distr, prevention of drug dependence. DEA enforced. Attorney General has right to shed/resched a drug after public hearings. Manufacturers must register. rx must have..., double lock and key, med count, sgin out
  38. dea -- drug enforcement agency
    federal bureau of department of justice, enforce acts and train/conduct research related to dangerous drugs/abuse. Manufacturers must register.
  39. schedule I description
    high potential for abuse

    no acceptable medical use

    lack of safety
  40. sched I eg
    all illegal drugs
  41. sched II def
    • high potential for abuse
    • accepted us med use
    • dependence
    • no refills, to emergency, written script
  42. sched II eg
    morphine, demerol, codeine
  43. sched III def
    high abuse, accepted in us, mod dependency, refills up to 5x 6mo, t/o
  44. sched III eg
    tylenol c codeine, vicodin, lortab
  45. sched IV def
    less pot. abuse, lower dependency, refill 6x per 6 mo, t/o
  46. Sched V def
    min abuse/dependency, no restrictions refill
  47. sched V eg
    robitussin, lyrica, lomotil
  48. sched IV eg
    valium, xanax, ativan
  49. possession for nsg
    • nsg must:
    • 1 be administering to rxed pt
    • 2 responsible for supply
    • 3 or valid rx
  50. possession unused
    returned to pharmacy, another witness and sign inventory sheet to verify it was discarded
  51. 4 steps of new drug
    • 1 - preclinical research and development 1.5 yrs
    • 2 - clinical research and dev *5 yr
    • 3 - new drug application (NDA) review *2 yr
    • 4 - post-marketing surveillance
  52. new drug time and money
    8-15yrs, 1 billion

    only 1/10,000 make the cut
  53. orphan drug act
    1983 -- research money to companies that seek to develop drugs for "health orphans" (rare diseases affecting less that 200,000 persons in us, eg: cystic fibrosis)
  54. pregnancy category D
    risk to fetus. benefits outweigh the risks
  55. pregnancy cat X
    fetal abnormalities, not advised for women who are or may become pregnant.
  56. agonist receptors
    drug that interacts w receptor to stimulate response
  57. partial agonist
    stimulates some responses/inhibits others
  58. antagonist
    • attaches to receptor, no stimulate response
    • (fill the space---inhibit)
  59. drug action in the bd ADME
    absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
  60. enteral administration route
    directly into gi tract
  61. enteral eg
    po, pr, ng, peg, jtube
  62. parenteral administration route
    bypass gi tract
  63. parenteral eg
    id, sc, im, iv
  64. percutaneous administration route
    through skin/mocous membranes
  65. percutaneous eg
    topical, inhale, sl, buccal, opthalmic, otic, nasal
  66. decreased acidity=
    increased absorption
  67. increased acidity=
    decreased absorption
  68. taking meds w food=
  69. emotional state=
    decreased absorption rate
  70. hypoxia
    low o2 level
  71. id and sc injection absorption rate
  72. im absorption rate
    increased due to increased bloodflow
  73. iv absorption rate
  74. cold/hot to injection site
    • cold-slows
    • hot-increases
  75. primary protein carrier through bloodstream
  76. primary site for metabolism
  77. primary routes of drug excretion
    gi tract, renal tubes (feces and urine)
  78. half-life of drug def
    amount of time required for 50% of drug to be eliminated from bd
  79. half-life calculation
    • 200 mg of 2 hrs:  @ 2 hrs 100mg left, @4h=50mg, @6h=25mg, @8h=12.5.
    • divide by 2 every 2 hrs
  80. idiosyncratic reaction
    rare, unusual, when drug first given, inability to metabolise drug
  81. allergic reaction
    hypersensitivity reation; 6-10% of pt; develops antibodies to drug in immune system, reexposed to drug and causes reaction
  82. anaphylactic reaction
    life threatening stat code blue, occur at any dose
  83. carcinogenic effect
    ability of drug to induce mutation of living cells and become cancerous.
  84. teratogenic effect
    ability to cause birth defects, greatest risk in first trimester
  85. side effect
    undesirable but tolerable
  86. adverse effect
    harmful such as shock
  87. smoking
    • chronic smoking enhances metabolism of some drugs
    • smoker may need to up the dose
    • r/t increased metabolic effects of nicotine
  88. tolerance
    person requires higher doses to produce same effects that lower doses once provided; dependence or increased metabolism of drug
  89. cumulative effect
    when drug accumulates in bd when a new dose is administered before old dose excretes. drunken state
  90. synergistic effect
    combined effect of 2 drugs is greater than effect of ea drug given alone

    eg tylenol codeine
Card Set:
2013-02-14 01:19:39
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