BIO112 EKU TEST1 PART2

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Author:
gatorlea92
ID:
200409
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BIO112 EKU TEST1 PART2
Updated:
2013-02-13 20:50:41
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BIO112 EKU EVOLUTION ECOLOGY
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TEST ONE PART 2 EKU BIO 112 ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
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  1. Mechanisms that alter frequencies of existing genetic variation:
    • natural selection
    • genetic drift
    • migration
    • nonrandom mating
  2. How can you identify a species?
    • morphology
    • reproductive isolation
    • molecular features
    • ecological factors
    • evolutionary relationships
  3. Morphology
    • physical characteristics
    • looks can be decieving
  4. What is Reproductive Isolation?
    they can't breed with each other
  5. Forms of prezygotic (before fertilization) Reproductive Isolation:
    • spatial isolation (most important)
    • temporal isolation              Help Maintain
    • behavorial isolation              Isolation &
    • mechanical isolation         Restrict Gene Flow
    • gametic isolation
  6. Forms of postzygotic Reproductive Isolation:
    • Hybrid inviability
    • hybrid sterility
    • hybrid breakdown
  7. Cladogenesis
    • the splitting or diverging of a population into 2 species
    • requires that gene flow become interrupted
  8. Allopatric speciation (Vicariant speciation)
    • most common type
    • mostly occurs through 5 prezygotic methods
    • the environment to which some individuals are transplanted is very different than the origional environment
    • barrier (mountains, deserts, body of water,ect.) separates members of a population
  9. 3 Steps necessary for one species to diverge into 2:
    • 1. isolation of gene pools of population
    • 2. evolutionary changes in gene pools of populations driven by 4 observations of natural selection
    • 3. evolution of characters unique to populations morphology, reproductive differences, ect.
  10. Types of Genetic Drift
    • Bottleneck
    • Founder Effect
  11. Hybrid zones
    • zones where 2 divergent populations can interbreed
    • geographic separation is not maintained
    • secondary contact following population expansion
    • hybrid infertility, inbreeding depression drives final isolation
  12. Diploid
    humans have 2 copies of each chromosome
  13. Polyploidy
    • A type of genetic change
    • can cause immediat reproductive isolation
    • the org. ends up with > 2 sets of chromosomes
    • most common in plants
  14. 3 Main Ways of Sympatric Speciation
    • Polyploidy
    • Adaptation to local environment
    • sexual selection
  15. Sympatric Speciation
    • "speciate" in same place
    • less common
    • members of a species diverge even though there are no barriers
    • HIGHLY CONTROVERSIAL
  16. Gradualism
    • each new species evolves continuously over long time periods
    • large phenotypic differences that produces new species are due to accumulation of many small genetic changes
  17. Punctuated Equilibrium
    • species exist relatively unchanged for many generations
    • genetic changes DO accumulate, but they do not significantly alter the phenotype
    • there are then "short" periods during which the frequencies of certain phenotypes in the population DO change
  18. Heterochrony
    • evolutionary changes in the rate or timing of developmental events
    • ex: human and chimp fetus head similar
    • Chimp jaw grows faster
    • Human jaw grows slower,and cranium grows faster
  19. Paedomorphosis
    • sexually mature organism may retain traits typical of the juvenile stage of the organisms ancestor
    • reproductive parts develope faster than the rest of the body
    • OR sexually mature organisms retain traits typical of the juvenile

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