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the ability to engage in reasoned discourse with
intellectual standards such as accuracy, clarity, precision and logic.
the art, practice, and study of human communication
-The faculty of discovering in any particular case all available means of persuasion
-The study of misunderstandings
-Use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols
-The use of reason and evidence by both sides who express their opinions on matters and issues, expose their opponents weak points, and eventually achieve a correct view point and mutual understanding.
refers to the character, quality, or integrity of the person speaking. Character traits that make a speaker believable and worth of an audience’s attention
beliefs, attitudes, and values, along with behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden
Core Cultural Resources
culture with no writing or technology for recording messages
theory proposing that face to face conversation is the prototype that is foundational to all other communication
Dialogical theory of communication
the fear or dread of negative responses you might experience because you speak out
fear or dread specifically related to speaking in public
Public speaking anxiety
5 Canons of rhetoric- principles, standards, norms, or guidelines for creating and delivering a speech
Invention- creating the speech
Disposition- Organizing the content
Style- selecting appropriate language
Memory- Learning the speech
Delivery- Performing to an audience
Canons of Rhetoric
canon of memory- guidelines to help you remember ideas
manuscript delivery- reading a speech
extemporaneous delivery – preparing a speech carefully in advance but choosing the exact wording during the speech itself
canon of delivery- rules or standards for presenting a speech
canons of memory and delivery
choose vocabulary that fit both the occasion and the audience. Adapting to occupation, age, education level
- omit offensive language
- choose understandable words. Avoid words your audience doesn’t know unless if you want to define them.
- Minimize slang expressions. Language in speeches is more formal than language used in every-day conversation.
Canon of Style
Canon of disposition- guidelines for organizing a speech
Introduction- draws audience attention, make topic relateable, like yourself, preview major points
Speech body-present develop major ideas with evidence
2 main points with 2 ways to support those
Conclusion- provide sense of closure, tie ideas together
♣ Transition to coclusion
♣ Reference to introduction
♣ Summary of major ideas
♣ Memorable statement
- Connect your ideas
Connectives- words used to tie ideas together
The Canon of disposition or arrangement
Consider the audience and the setting- -Gender/age, region, clothing, knowing audiences beliefs/attitudes
-Consider the layout of room, ventilation, size
- Choose a Topic
-Understand your expectations, reveal something unusual, select significant topic, consider story, consider listerns sensibilities, practice your idea with people you trust
- Identify Your Purpose
Inform, Persuade, Entertain, Commemorate
- Gather Speech Materials
Canon of invention
physiological mechanism your body automatically activates when threatened, helps you fight or flee
fight or flight mechanism
identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones. promoting positivity, maintaining positive self image, thinking realistically, etc.
self-control or moderation, contrasts with arrogance, civil speakers persuade consult and compromise rather than coerce and manipulate
presenting the words, images, or ideas of others as if they were your own
copying material word for word and then patching it together without quotation marks or citations
cut and paste plagiarism
changing some words of a basic source but keeping the basic structure and ideas intact without citing the source
physical process involving soundwaves, eardrums receptors
active process that receives, distinguishes, and attends to, assigns meaning, and remembers what you hear
place someone in a category ad then assume the person fits the characteristics of that category
performed biases or judgements, whether negative or positive
mental models that guide your perception, interpretation, storage and recollection of speech
the difference between the rate you think(500 words per minute) and the average speaking rate (about 150 words per minute) differential=350
listening to learn, understand, or get information
listening that requires you to refelect and weigh the merits of messages before you accept them
posture, eye contact, distance, movements
represents communication as a process in which
speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings
Transactional model of communication
the speaker encodes a message by selecting words to
represent their ideas. The speaker considers the audience’s interests, and
backgrounds when encoding.
Conception of thought. You decide what message you want to
A messages purpose may be to inform or persuade.Your message is presented in a way your audience can understand.
face to face, voice to ear channel, along with non
–verbal channels such as gestures or tone of voice.
receivers hear your words and decode them. They create individual meanings out of their judgment, backgrounds, heritage. Each listener
filters thoughts differently
the audience sends feedback. Nodding, clapping,
smiling, heckling, look of confusion, YOUTUBE comments
noise intereferes with message reception.
Internal—headache external—vacuum cleaner
environment the transmission of message is sent in.
classroom, email, comment section