Public Speaking Review Chapters 1-4

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Public Speaking Review Chapters 1-4
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2013-02-13 21:02:17
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Public Speaking Review Chapters 1-4
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  1. the ability to engage in reasoned discourse with
    intellectual standards such as accuracy, clarity, precision and logic.
    Critical thinking
  2. the art, practice, and study of human communication

    -The faculty of discovering in any particular case all available means of persuasion
    -The study of misunderstandings 
    -Use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols
    -The use of reason and evidence by both sides who express their opinions on matters and issues, expose their opponents weak points, and eventually achieve a correct view point and mutual understanding.
    rhetoric
  3. refers to the character, quality, or integrity of the person speaking. Character traits that make a speaker believable and worth of an audience’s attention
    Ethos
  4. beliefs, attitudes, and values, along with behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden
    Core Cultural Resources
  5. culture with no writing or technology for recording messages
    Oral Culture
  6. theory proposing that face to face conversation is the prototype that is foundational to all other communication
    Dialogical theory of communication
  7. the fear or dread of negative responses you might experience because you speak out
    Communication apprehension
  8. fear or dread specifically related to speaking in public
    Public speaking anxiety
  9. 5 Canons of rhetoric- principles, standards, norms, or guidelines for creating and delivering a speech

    Invention- creating the speech
    Disposition- Organizing the content
    Style- selecting appropriate language
    Memory- Learning the speech
    Delivery- Performing to an audience
    Canons of Rhetoric
  10. canon of memory- guidelines to help you remember ideas
    manuscript delivery- reading a speech
    extemporaneous delivery – preparing a speech carefully in advance but choosing the exact wording during the speech itself
    canon of delivery- rules or standards for presenting a speech
    canons of memory and delivery
  11. choose vocabulary that fit both the occasion and the audience. Adapting to occupation, age, education level
    - omit offensive language
    - choose understandable words. Avoid words your audience doesn’t know unless if you want to define them.
    - Minimize slang expressions. Language in speeches is more formal than language used in every-day conversation.
    Canon of Style
  12. Canon of disposition- guidelines for organizing a speech
    Introduction- draws audience attention, make topic relateable, like yourself, preview major points
    Speech body-present develop major ideas with evidence 

    2 main points with 2 ways to support those

    Conclusion- provide sense of closure, tie ideas together

    ♣ Transition to coclusion
    ♣ Reference to introduction
    ♣ Summary of major ideas
    ♣ Memorable statement
    - Connect your ideas

    Connectives- words used to tie ideas together
    The Canon of disposition or arrangement
  13. Consider the audience and the setting- -Gender/age, region, clothing, knowing audiences beliefs/attitudes
    -Consider the layout of room, ventilation, size
    - Choose a Topic
    -Understand your expectations, reveal something unusual, select significant topic, consider story, consider listerns sensibilities, practice your idea with people you trust

    - Identify Your Purpose
    Inform, Persuade, Entertain, Commemorate

    - Gather Speech Materials
    Canon of invention
  14. physiological mechanism your body automatically activates when threatened, helps you fight or flee
    fight or flight mechanism
  15. identifying negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones. promoting positivity, maintaining positive self image, thinking realistically, etc.
    cognitive modification
  16. self-control or moderation, contrasts with arrogance, civil speakers persuade consult and compromise rather than coerce and manipulate
    civility
  17. presenting the words, images, or ideas of others as if they were your own
    plagiarism
  18. copying material word for word and then patching it together without quotation marks or citations
    cut and paste plagiarism
  19. changing some words of a basic source but keeping the basic structure and ideas intact without citing the source
    Improper paraphrase
  20. physical process involving soundwaves, eardrums receptors
    Hearing
  21. active process that receives, distinguishes, and attends to, assigns meaning,  and remembers what you hear
    Listening
  22. place someone in a category ad then assume the person fits the characteristics of that category
    Stereotype
  23. performed biases or judgements, whether negative or positive
    prejudice
  24. mental models that guide your perception, interpretation, storage and recollection of speech
    schemas
  25. the difference between the rate you think(500 words per minute) and the average speaking rate (about 150 words per minute) differential=350
    speech-though differential
  26. listening to learn, understand, or get information
    comprehensive listening
  27. listening that requires you to refelect and weigh the merits of messages before you accept them
    critical listening
  28. posture, eye contact, distance, movements
    non-verbal feedback
  29. represents communication as a process in which
    speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings
    Transactional model of communication
  30. the speaker encodes a message by selecting words to
    represent their ideas. The speaker considers the audience’s interests, and
    backgrounds when encoding.
    Source/Speaker
  31. Conception of thought. You decide what message you want to
    present. 
    idea
  32. A messages purpose may be to inform or persuade.Your message is presented in a way your audience can understand.
    Message/symbols
  33. face to face, voice to ear channel, along with non
    –verbal channels such as gestures or tone of voice.
    Medium/Verbal-Non-verbal
  34. receivers hear your words and decode them. They create individual meanings out of their judgment, backgrounds, heritage. Each listener
    filters thoughts differently
    Receiver/decode
  35. the audience sends feedback. Nodding, clapping,
    smiling, heckling, look of confusion, YOUTUBE comments
    Response/Feedback
  36. noise intereferes with message reception.
    Internal—headache external—vacuum cleaner
    internal/external noise
  37. environment the transmission of message is sent in.
    classroom, email, comment section
    communication environment

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