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What are ruminants susceptible to due to being recumbent during anesthesia?
- post anesthetic myopathy
- exertional rhabdomyolysis
- hyperthermia (mainly sheep and goats)
What is the main thing we need to take into consideration with ruminants when we are putting them under anesthesia and why?
the rumen because anesthetic will alter function, cause bloat, cause regurgitation and aspiration, and hypoventilation may occur
Can we fast ruminants before anesthesia like we fast dogs and cats?
we can fast them but they will not be completely empty like dogs and cats due to have lots of stuff in their stomachs
Why should we fast ruminants before anesthesia?
less food in the stomach will relieve some pressure that the rumen will put on the animal when it is in recumbency
Ruminants salivate excessively. Why do we need to be aware of this when we put them under anesthesia?
we do need to be careful they do not aspirate their saliva and cause pneumonia
Most of our ruminants are pregnant. Why do we need to be aware of this when using anesthesia?
don't use xylazine because it can cause premature parturition or abortion
What do we need to take into consideration that the ruminants are food animals when putting them under anesthesia?
- withdrawal times for drugs
- drug residues
- cost of drugs
- careful of injection sites because of the meat
Which type of anesthesia do we mostly use for ruminants and why?
- regional and local anesthesia
- ruminants do not handle general anesthesia very well
What are the three different types of local anesthesias that can be used for ruminants
What is the duration of lidocaine, mepivicaine, and bupivicaine?
- lidocaine: 45 - 90 minutes
- mepivicaine: 90 - 180 minutes
- bupivicaine: 240 - 480 minutes (4 - 8 hours)
What kinds of regional and local anesthesia do we do for the abdominal cavity of ruminants?
- line block
- inverted L
- proximal paravertebral
- distal paravertebral
What kind of regional and local anesthesia do we do for problems in the back end of ruminants?
Describe how to do a line block in ruminants.
- down the line where the incision will be, divide the line into 3 sections and infiltrate 60 cc of 2% lidocaine into each section
- when you are infiltrating into each section, redirect the needle up and down to spread the lidocaine out
What is the disadvantage to using a line block in ruminants?
you will be making the incision right on top of where the anesthesia was placed so the skin is not quite as good
What is the maximum amount of lidocaine that we can use for a line block or inverted L in ruminants?
200 ml of 2% lidocaine
Describe how to do a inverted L in ruminants.
- performed the same as the line block, but infiltrate the lidocaine along the line of the L
- this creates an area inside the inverted L that is desensitized so that the incision can be there instead of on the line where the anesthesia was given
What spinal nerves do we desensitize with the paravertebral block in ruminants?
What are the two types of paravertebral blocks in ruminants?
How do we do the proximal paravertebral block in ruminants?
- as the spinal nerves exit the intervertebral foramen desensitize dorsal and ventral branches
- insert needle directly beside dorsal spinal process
How do we do the distal paravertebral block in ruminants?
- desensitizes dorsal and ventral branches at the end of the transverse process
- palapate end of transverse process and insert needle, then infiltrate up and down to desensitize both nerves
When would we do a caudal epidural in ruminants?
- uterine prolapse
- vaginal prolapse
- rectal prolapse
What is mutation?
change something about the posture and position of the fetus
Where do we give the caudal epidural in ruminants?
sacrococcygeal space or C1 - C2 space
How do we do a caudal epidural in ruminants?
- use about 5cc of 2% lidocaine in an average mature cow
- use 18 - 20g needle, 1 1/2 inches long
- insert needle and take out stylet
- drop in lidocaine until there is a bleb on the top
- once the bleb goes down the hub attach the syringe and gently push the plunger down...since there is negative pressure in the space, the plunger should go down very easily
Do we use anticholinergics often in ruminants?
- no usually because we don't want to slow down the GI tract and cause GI stasis
- we use them to treat bradycardia associated with xylazine
Out of the anticholinergics which one do we use for ruminants and why?
atropine because it is cheap
Which sedatives do we use for ruminants?
alpha 2 agonists, mainly xylazine
How do ruminants react to xylazine?
very sensitive to xylazine and have very little resistance to it so we don't use a lot
What are the two routes to give xylazine for ruminants and which is the most common way?
- IM or IV
- IV the most common
What is the reverser for xylazine?
What are the two concentrations of xylazine?
- 20mg/ml (small animal xylazine)
- 100mg/ml (large animal xylazine)
Besides xylzaine, what other premeds do we give ruminants?
acepromazine and butrophanol
What are the different types of induction agents we can use for ruminants?
- thiobarbiturate (thiopental) - not available anymore
- dissociatives (ketamine and telazol)
- GTX (not available anymore) or GKX
What is the duration of anesthesia when using thiopental in ruminants?
10 - 20 minutes
What is the main concern with using thiopental in ruminants?
apnea may occur especially if higher doses are used without premeds
What is the duration of anesthesia when using ketamine for ruminants?
15 - 25 minutes
What can we combine ketamine with for an induction agent in ruminants?
Out of the two dissociatives, which one is used the most in ruminants for induction?
What is a triple drip for ruminants?
- combining GTX (guaifenesin, thiopental, xylazine) or GKX (guaifenesin, ketamine, xylazine)
- because ruminants are sensitive to xylazine, we give this separate and then just mix ketamine in a 1 liter bag of 5% guaifenesin)
What is the advantages of a triple drip in ruminants?
- good muscle relaxation
- makes induction and recovery smoother
What are the ways to maintain a ruminant on general anesthesia?
- if they are under 300 pounds then we can use a gas anesthesia machine that we use for dogs and cats
- pulse dose the ketamine (1/3 to 1/2 of initial dose) when the animal starts to wake up
- CRI of GKX (minus the X)