Anatomy Chapter 2

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purpledot1784
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200462
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Anatomy Chapter 2
Updated:
2013-02-13 23:38:15
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Anatomy chapter
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Cells, matter, atoms
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  1. Considered to be the basic units of matter.
    Composed of protons, electrons, and neutrons
    Atoms
  2. The core of each atom in a nucleus composed of positivly charged protons and uncharged neutrons
    Nucleus
  3. The number of protons in the nucleus is an atom's __________
    Atomic Number
  4. The number of protons and neutrons combined is the atom's _________
    Atomic Mass
  5. Electrons keep darting about within certain limits called orbitals.  Each orbital implies that their electrons move around in elliptical orbits.
    Orbitals
  6. Orbitals are arranged into energy levels (shells) depending on their distance from the nucleus.  The farther an orbital extends from the nucleus, the higher its energy level is.
    energy levels
  7. Pure substances, composed of only one of more than a hundred types of atoms that exist in nature
    Elements
  8. Particles of matter that are composed of one of units called atoms
    Molecules
  9. Anything that occuoies space and has mass.  Including molecules and atoms.
    Matter
  10. A steroid lipid that combine with phospholipids.  Also a starting point in making steroid hormones i.e. estrogen testosterone, and cortisone
    Cholestrol
  11. Similar to triglycerides, but contain phosphorus.  The "head" attracts water and the 2 fatty acid "tails" repel water
    Phospholipids
  12. Lipids that bonds can be broken apart to yeild energy.  Useful in storing energy.
    Triglycerides
  13. Fats and oils
    Lipids
  14. carbon and water compounds
    Carbohydrate
  15. Chemicals in the blood that maintain pH
    Buffers
  16. Compunds that produce an excess of OH- ions (or a decrease in H+)
    Bases
  17. Compunds that produce an excess of H+ ions
    acids
  18. Water disrupts the bonds in large molecules, causing them to be broken down into smaller molecules
    Hydrolysis
  19. Reactants combine only after two (H) atoms and an (O) atom are removed
    Dehydration synthesis
  20. When water is the solvent for a mixture of two or more kinds of molecules
    Aqueous Solution
  21. Water is the most common solvent in which most other compounds are disolved
    Solvent
  22. Few inorganic compounds have carbon atoms and none has C-C or C-H bonds
    Inorganic
  23. Compounds composed of molecules that contain (C-C) covalent bonds, (C-H) or both
    Organic
  24. Water Molecules form temporary attatchments
    Hydrogen Bonds
  25. When atoms share electrons
    Covalent Bond
  26. Molecules that form ions when dissolved in water
    electrolytes
  27. Molecules dissolving in water
    Dissociate
  28. Forms between an atom that has only 1 or 2 electrons on the outermost level
    Ionic Bonds
  29. Two or more elements bonded together
    Compunds
  30. Plays on important energy-transfer role in the body.
    Energy-transfer "battery" that picks up energy available to the cellular process
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  31. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    DNA
  32. Are chemical catalysts
    Help a chemical reaction occur, but are not reactants or products themselves.  They participate in chemical reactions but are not changed by the recations
    Enzymes
  33. The basic building blocks of nucleic acids.  Each nucleotide consists of a phosphate unit, a sugar, and a nitrogen base.
    Nucleotides
  34. Lipid molecules formed by a glycerol until joined to three fatty acids.  Their bonds can be broken apart to yeild energy.
    Triglycerides
  35. A steroid lipid that combines with phospholipids in the cell membrane to help stabilize its bilayer structure
    Cholesterol
  36. Bonds that string together and hold amino acids
    Peptide Bonds
  37. Basic units that make up protines
    Contain carbon, hydrogen, and 02 and nitrogen
    Amino Acids
  38. Anterior torso below diaphragm
    Abdominal Region
  39. Have phosphorus containing units in them.
    Forms a "head" that attracts water.  Two "fatty acid" tails repel water.
    This allows them to form a stable bilayer in water that forms the foundation for the cell membrane
    Phospholipids

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