Neurological diorders

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Neurological diorders
2013-02-15 09:23:41
neuro exam

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  1. lesion in primary visual area
    occipital lobe (17)
  2. Visual agnosia
    lesion in visual association area (18 & 19)

    can't recognize objects your looking at.
  3. lesion in primary motor cortex (4)
    paralysis- contralateral side 
  4. lesion in premotor area (6)
    response preservation- can't complete actions
  5. lesion in Broca's area (44 & 45)
    expressive aphasia- loss of ability to produce language  (written or spoken)
  6. Lesion in Wernicke's (22)
    Wernicke's aphasia- receptive aphasia- can speak normally but don't understand what's told to them in writing or speech.
  7. Angular gyrus lesion
    obj. naming aphasia
  8. Lesion in somatosensory association area (5 & 7)
    Asterognosis (tactile agnosia)- don't understand what you touch

    primary somatosensory(1,2,3)
  9. lesion in heschl's gyrus (41 & 42)
    hearing deficit (can occur by stroke)
  10. Prefrontal association area lesions
    • Multimodal association area
    • -inability to plan for future
    • -Response preservation- can't complete actions
    • -Irresponsible behavior
    • -Changes in personality
  11. Inferior Parietal association area lesion (39 & 40)
    • Multimodal association area
    • -Gerstman's syndrome- left sided inferior parietal lobe damage
    •     -finger agnosia
    •     -confusion over right and left
    •     -inability to write or do arithmetic
    • -obj. naming deficits
  12. Inferior Temporal association area lesion(20 & 21)
    • Multimodal association area
    • -loss of memory for stories, events, other length language sequences
    • -in damage is to hippocampus then cannot make new memories
  13. Anosognosia
    denial of deficit
  14. Prosopagnosia
    face blindness- can only recognize people from their voices.
  15. damage to hippocampus
    inability to form new declarative memories
  16. hydrocephalus 
    water brain- build up of CSF b/c defects in arachnoid villa
  17. dysraphisms
    neural tube defects, Tx-folic acid 1 month prior, alfa feta protein and ultrasound
  18. Anencephaly
    partial brain, major portion of neural tissue remains joined to skin bin in ireland an wales,
  19. crainum bifidum
    anterior tube closure failure, improper induction, posteriro portions of skull no form
  20. Encephalocele
    posterior herniation, infants severely retarded, short life, if mild life and intelligence ok
  21. Spina bifida
    posterior neural tube closer failure, neural tube does not properly induce formation of vertebrae
  22. Spina bifida occulta
    spinal cord not properly form in SOME vertebra, (Low lumbar), tuft of hair
  23. Spina bifida cystica
    • 3 types
    • -meningocele-meningial herniation 
    • -myelomeningocele-meningies and cord herniation
    • -myeloschisis-incomplete dev, of spinal cord and it's joined to skin open to environment
  24. Holoprosencephally
    telencephalic division in 5th week, SINGLE forebrain, cyclops, one nostril, decreasing severity--> midline facial deficits, single midline central incisor  CAUSE-SHh mutation or maternal alcoholism.
  25. Microcephaly
    small brain
  26. microcephaly vera
    inherited autosomal recessive, 
  27. lissencephaly
    smooth brain (lack in # of fissures)
  28. pachygyria
    unusually thick gyri
  29. heterotopias
    neurons in abnormal places
  30. ADD/ Tourettes
    Excess synaptogenesis,   (adult pruning can help)
  31. Schizophernia
    25% loss in synapses by puberty  most only lose 15% in adulthood
  32. Autism
    INSUFFICIENT synaptic pruning, unusually large head.
  33. agnosia-
    • loss of ability to recognize and interpret sensory experiences,
    • visual, auditory, tactile (asteregnosis), prospopagnosia (can't recognize face), anosognoisa(fails to recognize deficit)
  34. Apraxia
    non paralized, and can't engage in motor actions involving use of obj. or jestures