Biology- Kingdom Fungi

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Biology- Kingdom Fungi
2013-02-14 02:52:39
fungi biology

bio fungi
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  1. Chytridiomycota
    • -only true fungi to be aquatic
    • -they move by a posterior flagellum called 'zoospores'
    • -some are hyphal, others are unicellular
  2. Chytridiomycota
    • -saprophytic chytrid
  3. Chytridiomycota
    • Produce haploid gametes in sexual reproduction ordiplod zoospores in asexual reproduction 
    • -Gametes are for reproduction
    • -Zoospores are for colonization
  4. Zygomycota
    • -terrestrial 
    • -hyphael: grow as threads, hyphae are coenocytic (lack septa)
    • -nuclei are haploid
    • -primarily saprophytes
  5. Zygomycota
    • -nuclei are haploid
    • -reproduce by asexual spores contained in the sporangium
    • -sexual reproduction can occur by the fusion of isomorphic (different mating types) multinucleate gametangium
    • - the product is zygosporangia which undergo meiosis
  6. Zygomycota
    -Rhizopis: common black bread mold, sporangiospores are supported by rhizoid structures like roots
  7. Conidial Fungi
    • -includes fungi whose form of sexual reproduction is not known
    • -asexual spores (conidia) are not protected by a cover, but are produced as chains of cells which are then severed at the tips of specialized hyphae (conidiospores) 
    • -
  8. Conidial Fungi
    • -Penicillium 
    • -Aspergillus
  9. Ascomycota- 'sac' fungi
    • -have septate hyphae or grow as yeasts
    • -all sexual spores are made in the ascus
  10. Ascomycota
    • -gametangia arise as special hyphael branches; the 'male' (Antheridium) and 'female' (Ascogonium) 
    • -the 'female' had a receptive hair-like projection called a trichogyne
    • -nuclei is passed from M to F when the antheridium touches the trichogyne
    • -ascogenous occurs (formation of a new ascus) whereby the ascus contains nuclei from each parents
  11. Ascomycota
    -Ascocarp types
    • -a) perithecium
    • -b) apothecium
    • -c) cleistothecium
  12. Ascomycota
    • -following the formation of asci in the dikaryotic cells, fertilization occurs
    • -meiosis takes place immediately forming 4 haploid nuclei
    • -these four nuclei then divide again by mitosis
  13. Basidiomycota- the 'club' fungi
    • -have septate hyphae
    • -many are saprophytes or mycorrihizal
    • -all sexual spores (Basidiospores) are born externally on the basidium (club)
    • -have no distinct gamatangia
    • -many club fungi form macroscopic basidiocarps
  14. Basidiomycota
    • -asexual reproduction involves conidia
    • -fusion of hyphae occurs early and the organism exists dikaryotically for most of its life
    • -the dikaryotic mycelium eventually forms young basidia
    • -the two nuclei of the basidium unite (karyognamy) and form a diplod nucleus
    • -meiosis occurs and the haploid nuclei form basidiospores
  15. Lichens
    • -organisms made up of fungi and green algae or cyanonacteria
    • -growth conditions are usually poor
  16. Heterotrophic Protists
    a. Plasmodial Slime molds
    • -plasmodium is a mass of multinecleate cytoplasm capable of creeping on solid surface
    • -if conditions are unfavorable, the plasmodium will enter the resting stage, forming a sclerotium
    • -are eukaryotic heterotrophs with two stages
    • 1) vegetative (feeding) stage
    • - are amoeboid or flagellated
    • 2) reproductive stage
    • -form spores with rigid walls, often containing cellulose
    • -spores are carried by teh wind
  17. Heterotrophic Protists
    b. Oomycetes
    • - absorptive heterotrophs 
    • -cell walls contain cellulose
    • -have coenocytic hyphae
    • -aquatic (require water for reproduction)
    • -zoospores have two flagella: whiplash and tensile
  18. Heterotrophic Protists
    b. Oomycetes- Reproduction
    -zygote forms a thick wall and becomes a restings pore