psy150 ch2 test questions review

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psy150 ch2 test questions review
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test questions review for ch 2
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  1. 35.  Psychologists use techniques based on ___________.


    A. cultural ethnocentrism
    B. philosophical logic
    C. the scientific method
    D. objective introspection
    A. correlational
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. 2.  Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the __________. 


    A. naturalistic observation method  
    B. experimental method  
    C. correlational method  
    D. psychometric approach  
    A. naturalistic observation method
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. 4.  A detailed, well-researched biography of a famous historical person is technically an example of the __________ method of research.   


    A. correlational  
    B. case study  
    C. psychometric  
    D. naturalistic observation  
    B. case study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. 5.  When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of __________. 


    A. case study research  
    B. survey research  
    C. naturalistic observation  
    D. psychometric study  
    C. naturalistic observation 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. 6.  Research in which a carefully selected group of people is asked a set of predetermined questions in interviews or through questionnaires is known as __________. 


    A. survey research  
    B. correlational research  
    C. case study research  
    D. experimental research
    A. survey research 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. 7.  A research method in which the real-life behavior of a pre-selected person or a group is studied at an in-depth level for some time through the use of observation, interviews, and writings (such as letters) is the _____________ method of research.


    A. psychometric
    B. naturalistic observation
    C. survey
    D. case study
    D. case study 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. 8.  A weakness of ________ is that subjects participating in the research often report, consciously and unconsciously, inaccurate information.


    A. field experiments
    B. naturalistic observation
    C. surveys
    D. laboratory experiments
    C. surveys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. 9.  As part of an assignment, Bill's class was asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire on prejudice.  Which research method was Bill's professor using?


    A. laboratory experiment
    B. naturalistic observation
    C. field experiment
    D. survey
    D. survey
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. 10.  Naturalistic observation is ____________________.


    A. studying behavior in its natural context
    B. re-creating natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid
    C. observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experiment findings
    D. basically the same process as objective introspection
    A. studying behavior in its natural context
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. 11.  As part of an assignment, Bill's class was asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire on sexual discrimination.  Which research method was Bill's professor using?


    A. field experiment
    B. naturalistic observation
    C. survey
    D. laboratory experiment
    C. survey
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. 12.  Collecting objective data without interference in the subject's normal environment is associated with ________.


    A. naturalistic observation
    B. applied research
    C. survey research
    D. laboratory research
    A. naturalistic observation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. 13.  As part of an assignment, Ricks' class was asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire on female sexual harassment.  Which research method was Bill's professor using?


    A. survey
    B. field experiment
    C. naturalistic observation
    D. laboratory experiment
    A. survey
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. 14.  Collecting objective data without interference in the subject's normal environment is associated with:


    A. survey research.
    B. laboratory research.
    C. applied research.
    D. naturalistic observation.
    D. naturalistic observation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. 15.  The degree of relationship between two or more variables is __________. 


    A. a hypothesis  
    B. reliability  
    C. correlation  
    D. validity  
    C. correlation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. 16.  The degree of relationship between two or more variables is: 

    A. a hypothesis.
    B. validity.
    C. reliability.
    D. correlation.
    D. correlation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. 17.  Anything that follows a response, making that response more likely to recur, is


    A. consequence
    B. an enhancement
    C. reinforcement
    D. an antecedent
    C. reinforcement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. 18.  Positive correlation shows:


    A. that as one variable changes, another changes in the same direction.
    B. that as one variable changes, another changes in the opposite direction.
    C. the extent to which two independent variables change together.
    D. that as one independent variable increases, another decreases.
    A. that as one variable changes, another changes in the same direction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. 19.  A researcher wished to study the relationship between high school grades and college grades.  Of the following research methods, which would be the most appropriate?


    A. experiment
    B. survey
    C. correlation
    D. case study
    C. correlation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. 20.  A correlation of .00 means:


    A. you did not find out anything about the relationship between the two variables.
    B. everyone who scored low on one variable scored high on the other variable, and vice versa.
    C. you made a mistake in calculation.
    D. the two variables are unrelated.
    D. the two variable are unrelated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. 21.  The greatest disadvantage of correlation is:


    A. its value can be negative.
    B. it has a limited range of values, being only -1 to +1.
    C. its value can be zero.
    D. it does not enable cause-and-effect conclusions.
    D. it does not enable cause and effect conclusions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. 22.  A correlation tells us:


    A. whether or not a test is efficient.
    B. whether two variables are related
    C. if people are responding to demand characteristics.
    D. whether a cause-effect relationship exists.
    B. whether two variables are related
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. 23.  A psychologist uses the correlational method to _________.


    A. explain the effects of one variable on another
    B. identify relationships between variables
    C. determine what causes a variable to change
    D. compare two groups of subjects
    B. identify relationships between variables
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. 24.  The survey method of research is ___________ in nature.


    A. both correlational and field experimental group 
    B. field experimental
    C. correlational
    D. experimental
    C. correlational
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. 25.  As children grow older, their discretionary income usually increases.  The best conclusion to draw about the variables age and income are that they are:


    A. negatively correlated
    B. uncorrelated
    C. causally related
    D. positively correlated
    D. positively correlated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. 26.  A large group of people whom you want to know about is called a __________. 


    A. treatment group  
    B. sample  
    C. control group  
    D. population  
    D. population
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. 27.  In an experiment to test the effects of anxiety on performance, the dependent variable is the __________. 


    A. cause of the anxiety  
    B. age of the person  
    C. person's performance  
    D. amount of anxiety  
    C. a person's performance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. 28.  A scientist, conducting a research study on sleep and learning, questions her own objectivity and decides to let a third person, not associated with conducting the experiment, score the tests. The scientist is probably trying to eliminate __________. 

    A. experimenter bias  
    B. sample bias  
    C. control bias  
    D. treatment bias  
    A. experimenter bias
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. 29.  Psychologists use research techniques based on __________. 


    A. objective introspection  
    B. the scientific method  
    C. inductive reasoning  
    D. deductive reasoning  
    B. the scientific method
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. 30.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable. The second variable, which is observed for any possible effects, is called the __________. 


    A. control variable  
    B. independent variable  
    C. dependent variable  
    D. hypothetical variable  
    C. dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. 31.  A psychologist, studying pilot trainees, picks a select group of trainees who is hopefully representative of all other trainees. The group of trainees being studied by this psychologist is collectively known to researchers as a __________. 


    A. sample  
    B. population  
    C. target group  
    D. control group  
    A. sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. 32.  Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or their interpretation are called __________. 


    A. experimenter bias  
    B. sample bias  
    C. treatment bias  
    D. experimental blinds  
    A. experimenter bias
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. 33.  In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable is called the __________ group. 


    A. dependent  
    B. control  
    C. experimental  
    D. independent  
    C. experimental
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. 34.  A subset of cases selected from a larger population is a __________.   


    A. target group  
    B. sample  
    C. control group  
    D. treatment group  
    B. sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. 35.  If explanation of the causes of thoughts, feelings, and behavior is a psychologist's goal, then the __________ method of research should be used.   


    A. naturalistic observation  
    B. experimental  
    C. correlational  
    D. survey    
    B. experimental
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. 36.  In a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable, and used for comparison with the group receiving the experimental change, is the __________ group.  


    A. dependent  
    B. independent  
    C. experimental  
    D. control 
    D. control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. 37.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable.  The manipulated variable is called the:


    A. dependent variable.
    B. experimental variable.
    C. placebo.
    D. independent variable.
    D. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. 38.  A group of students was asked to write an essay in support of the legalization of marijuana.  They were paid $.50.  Another group of students received $2.00 for the same task.  It was subsequently found that those students who received only $.50 developed a more positive attitude towards the legalization of marijuana.  The experiment in this study was using (the)


    A. naturalistic observation
    B. experimental method
    C. survey research
    D. correlational method
    B. experimental
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. 39.  A sample that does not truly represent the population in question is known as a _____________sample.


    A. biased
    B. representative
    C. chance
    D. random
    A. biased
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. 40.  To obtain objective information, researchers sometimes must deceive their subjects.  Ethically, research involving deception must always _________.


    A. use double-blind control
    B. pay participants
    C. explain the deception to the subjects after the data are collected and obtain their informed consent to use the information obtained
    D. maintain subject anonymity
    C. explain the deception to the subjects after the data are collected and obtain their informed consent to use the information obtained
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. 41.  To determine if sugar-rich diets affect hyperactivity in kids, a researcher prepared two daily menus that children would receive for a 30-day period.  A high-sugar diet was given to the boys, while the girls had a menu that seemed identical but was not a high sugar diet.  At the end of 30 days, the boys and girls were evaluated to determine their levels of hyperactivity.  In the study, the high-sugar diet is the ________.


    A. placebo
    B. dependent variable
    C. independent variable
    D. control group
    C. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. 42.  Using both independent and dependent variables is associated with which of the following types of research used in psychology?


    A. naturalistic observation
    B. correlation
    C. experimentation
    D. correlation and experimentation
    C. experimentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. 43.  Manipulating an independent variable in

    a real-life setting is ________.
    a. an experiment
    b. an example of naturalistic observation
    c. a field experiment
    d. unethical
    C. a field experiment
  43. 44.  Experimenter bias can best be controlled using ________.


    A. randomization
    B. double-blind control
    C. a placebo
    D. subjects who do not know the purpose of the study
    B. double-blind control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. 45.  A researcher, based on her review of relevant scientific studies, believes that there is a relationship between the frequency of a baby's crying and whether it was nursed at set intervals or on a demand schedule.  If this belief were tested by experimentally manipulating feeding schedules, the feeding schedule would be called the:


    A. independent variable.
    B. control factors.
    C. extraneous variable.
    D. dependent variable.
    A. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. 46.  A researcher, based on her review of relevant scientific studies, believes that there is a relationship between the frequency of a baby's crying and whether it was nursed at set intervals or on a demand schedule.  If this belief were tested by experimentally manipulating feeding schedules, frequency of crying would be called the:


    A. independent variable.
    B. dependent variable.
    C. control factor.
    D. latent factor.
    B. dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. 47.  One of the main reasons for using a laboratory for psychological research is to:


    A. allow the researchers to control certain factors.
    B. study behavior in a natural setting.
    C. prevent subjects from escaping.
    D. do large-scale studies.
    A. allow the researchers to control certain factors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. 48.  The process of establishing causal relationships is associated most with:


    A. naturalistic observation.
    B. correlation.
    C. experiments.
    D. surveys.
    C. experiments 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. 49.  A researcher tests the hypothesis that students who study in the room where they take their tests will perform better on the tests than students who study in other rooms.  She requires one group to study in the classroom where the exam is given and another group to study in the library.  All students take the test in the classroom, and their test performance is compared.  In this example, where students study is the:


    A. hypothesis.
    B. dependent variable.
    C. manipulation.
    D. independent variable.
    D. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. 50.  A researcher tests the hypothesis that students who study in the room where they take their tests will perform better on the tests than students who study in other rooms.  She requires one group to study in the classroom where the exam is given and another group to study in the library.  All students take the test in the classroom, and their test performance is compared.  In this example, test performance is:


    A. the dependent variable.
    B. the control group.
    C. the manipulation.
    D. the independent variable.
    A. the dependent variable 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. 51.  In psychological studies, randomization is used to ensure that:


    A. there will be an independent and dependent variable.
    B. each person has an equal chance of being assigned to each group.
    C. the experimenter won't know who is in each group.
    D. the control group does not know the purpose of the study.
    B. each person has an equal chance of being assigned to each group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. 52.  A "fake treatment" is one way to define a ______.


    A. control group
    B. decoy
    C. demand characteristic
    D. placebo
    D. placebo
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. 53.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable.  The manipulated variable is called the __________.


    A. control variable
    B. independent variable
    C. hypothetical variable
    D. dependent variable
    B. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. 54.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable.  The second variable, which is observed for any possible effects, is called the __________.


    A. dependent variable
    B. hypothetical variable
    C. independent variable
    D. control variable
    A. dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. 55.  The method of psychological research which utilizes a control group, a dependent variable, and an independent variable is


    A. naturalistic observation.
    B. the case study.
    C. the experiment.
    D. the survey.
    C. the experiment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. 56.  Professor McSpell designed an experiment to test her hypothesis that exercise will increase spelling ability.  She divided children into three groups and had one group do 10 minutes of exercises, one group do 30 minutes of exercises, and the third group do no exercise.  She then tested all three groups of children to see how many words they could spell correctly on a spelling test. In this experiment, the scores on the spelling test serve as the 


    A. reliability measure.
    B. independent variable.
    C. control group.
    D. dependent variable.
    D. Dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. 57.  Which of the following is a strength of experiments?


    A. They allow us to draw definitive conclusions about behavior in the natural environment based on subjects' behavior in the laboratory.
    B. They cannot be repeated by anyone other than the experimenter.
    C. They are not subject to demand characteristics since the subjects do not know they are being observed.
    D. They allow for the establishment of cause-effect relationships.
    D. they allow for the establishment of cause-effect relationships
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. 58.  In an experiment, the "measurable aspect of the behavior of the subject" is called the __________ variable.


    A. independent
    B. control
    C. focal
    D. dependent
    D. dependent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. 59.  The purpose of an experiment is to discover whether there is a relationship between the ___________ and the ___________.


    A. control group; experimental group
    B. independent variable; dependent variable
    C. dependent variable; control variable
    D. independent variable; control variable
    B. independent variable; dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. 60.  Cause-and-effect conclusions can be drawn from the results of an experiment because:


    A. statistical analysis can be applied to data from an experiment.
    B. several groups of subjects, not just one sample, are typically investigated in a laboratory experiment.
    C. the independent variable is manipulated while other possible causes of change in the dependent variable are held constant.
    D. it is almost always performed in a laboratory setting.
    C. the independent variable is manipulated while other possible causes of change in the dependent variable are held constant.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. 61.  In an experiment on the effects of level of motivation on the performance of typists, the researcher randomly assigned one third of her subjects to each of three levels of motivation (and then induced different levels of motivation in the three groups).  She measured the average words typed per minute by each group, and found that performance was highest under medium motivation, average under low motivation, and worst under high motivation.  The regular variation in performance (average, best, worst) as motivation was changed (low, medium, high) is called a(n):


    A. independent variable.
    B. data pattern.
    C. linear relationship.
    D. functional relationship.
    D. functional relationship
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. 62.  In an experiment on the effects of level of motivation on the performance of typists, the researcher randomly assigned one third of her subjects to each of three levels of motivation (and then induced different levels of motivation in the three groups).  She measured the average words typed per minute by each group, and found that performance was highest under medium motivation, average under low motivation, and worst under high motivation.  What was the independent variable in this experiment?


    A. variation in typing speed
    B. typing speed
    C. manipulation of typing speed
    D. motivation
    D. motivation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. 63.  A psychologist wanted to see if people are more prone to seek the company of others when anxious than when calm.  He randomly assigned half of his subjects to an anxiety group and then told them that, as part of the study, they would receive electric shocks.  He did not frighten the other group of subjects.  Finally, he recorded how many subjects in each group chose to be "tested" in a group setting and how many chose to be "tested" alone.  What was the independent variable in this study?


    A. the anxious group
    B. tendency to desire the company of others
    C. level of anxiety
    D. level of shock
    C. Level of anxiety
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. 64.  In an experiment, four groups of college students used different memorizing strategies to learn the material in one chapter of a textbook.  Then each group was given the same multiple-choice test on the material.  What was the dependent variable in this study?


    A. the four different groups
    B. the students' performance on the test
    C. the four different memorizing strategies
    D. manipulation of memorizing strategies
    B. the students' performance on the test
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. 65.  A psychologist wanted to see if people are more prone to seek the company of others when anxious than when calm.  He randomly assigned half of his subjects to an anxiety group and then told them that, as part of the study, they would receive electric shocks.  He did not frighten the other group of subjects.  Finally, he recorded how many subjects in each group chose to be "tested" in a group setting and how many chose to be "tested" alone.   What was the dependent variable in this study?


    A.manipulation of anxiety
    B. the two groups
    C. the level of anxiety
    D. preference for being alone or in a group
    D. preference for being alone or in a group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. 66.  A psychologist wanted to see if people are more prone to seek the company of others when anxious than when calm.  He randomly assigned half of his subjects to an anxiety group and then told them that, as part of the study, they would receive electric shocks.  He did not frighten the other group of subjects.  Finally, he recorded how many subjects in each group chose to be "tested" in a group setting and how many chose to be "tested" alone.  In this study, the group that was NOT frightened would be called the ____________ group.


    A. experimental
    B. test
    C. placebo
    D. control
    D. control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. 67.  The purpose of a control group in an experiment is to:


    A. serve as a check on the interpretation of results.
    B. represent the general, nonlaboratory population.
    C. increase the ability to generalize the findings.
    D. manipulate the dependent variable.
    A. serve as a check on the interpretation of results
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. 68.  In an experiment, the group of subjects to which the experimental group is compared is called the:


    A. standard group.
    B. confederate group.
    C. comparison group.
    D. control group.
    D. control group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. 69.  In an experiment concerning the effect of auditory feedback on accuracy in writing computer programs, one group hears a computer-simulated voice say each character or symbol that they type in as they are writing their programs.  The second group does not receive the auditory feedback as they type their program lines.  This second group is the ___________ group.


    A. control
    B. placebo
    C. confederate
    D. experimental
    A. control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. 70.  Why is it essential that the experimental and control groups be treated identically in every respect but one?  


    A. so that if the behavior of the two groups differs, the difference can be credited to the one thing that distinguished the groups from one another.
    B. so that the dependent variable can be accurately measured
    C. so that the results will apply outside the laboratory setting.
    D. so that if the behavior of the two groups differs, that difference can be used to establish a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
    D. so that if the behavior of the two groups differs, that difference can be used to establish a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. 71.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable.  The manipulated variable is called the __________.


    A. dependent variable
    B. control variable
    C. hypothetical variable
    D. independent variable
    D. independent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. 72.  In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable.  The second variable, which is observed for any possible effects, is called the __________.


    A. hypothetical variable
    B. dependent variable
    C. control variable
    D. independent variable
    B. dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. 73.  To determine if sugar-rich diets affect hyperactivity in kids, a researcher prepared two daily menus that children would receive for a 30-day period.  A high-sugar diet was given to the boys, while the girls had a menu that seemed identical but was not a high sugar diet.  At the end of 30 days, the boys and girls were evaluated to determine their levels of hyperactivity.  In the study, the high-sugar diet is the _______.


    A. control group
    B. dependent variable
    C. placebo
    D. independent variable
    C. placebo
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. 74.  An experiment was run in which group A was given 3 minutes to study a word list, while group B was given 10 minutes to study the same list.  Later, both groups were asked to recall words from the list.  In this study, the number of words recalled is the _______.


    A. control group
    B. dependent variable
    C. placebo
    D. independent variable
    B. dependent variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. 75.  Dr. Welsh is doing experiments using drugs.  He is concerned that his subjects will respond to demand characteristics.  He may want to control for this by using which of the following?


    A. two independent variables
    B. randomization
    C. stratification
    D. a placebo
    D. placebo
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. 76.  Mr. Marshall hired June to collect data from a group of subjects.  Neither June nor the subjects were aware of the independent variable that Mr. Marshall had manipulated.  This is an example of _______.


    A. randomization
    B. a placebo
    C. double-blind control
    D. experimenter bias
    C. double-blind control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. 77.  Which of the following is NOT a strength of the experiment as a research method?


    A. Experimental conditions usually seem realistic to subjects.
    B. Variables can be analyzed carefully because of the degree of control over them.
    C. Experiments can usually be replicated if the findings are valid.
    D. Cause-and-effect relationships can be established.
    A. experimental conditions usually seem realistic to subjects
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. 78.  Almost all research done in psychology is analyzed ________.


    A. using correlational techniques
    B. visually
    C. statistically
    D. at the .1 level
    C. statistically
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. 79.  Keeping responses anonymous helps researchers avoid the ethical problem of _______.


    A. invasion of privacy
    B. deception
    C. animal rights violations
    D. experimenter bias
    A. invasion of privacy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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