PSY 421: Exam 2

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blueclues
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200493
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PSY 421: Exam 2
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2013-02-17 05:20:16
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Behavior Modification
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Ch. 6-11
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  1. Schedule of Reinforcement
    a rule specifying which occurances of a given behavior, if any, will be reinforced
  2. Extinction
    the opposite of continuous reinforcement
  3. Acquisition Phase
    phase while a behavior is being conditioned or learned
  4. Maintenance Phase
    phase after a behavior has become well learned
  5. Free-Operant Procedure
    procedure in which an individual is "free" to respond repeatedly in the sense that there are no constraints on successive responses
  6. Discrete-Trials Procedure
    procedure where a distinct stimulus is presented prior to an opportunity for a response to occur and be followed by reinforcement, and the next response cannot occur until another stimulus is presented, and so on
  7. Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
    schedule where a reinforcer occurs each time a set number of responses of a particular type are emitted
  8. Ratio Strain
    a deterioration of responding from increasing an FR schedule too rapidly
  9. Piece-Rate Pay
    paying an industrial worker for a specified number of completed parts
  10. Variable-Ratio Schedule
    schedule in which a reinforcer occurs after a certain number of a particular response, and the number of responses required for each reinforcer changes unpredictably from one reinforcer to the next
  11. 1) VR produces no/a minimal postreinforcement pause

    2) VR can be increased more abruptly than an FR without producing ratio strain

    3) the values of VR that can maintain responding are higher than FR

    4) VR produces a higher resistance to extinction than FR schedules of the same value
    4 Differences between FR and VR Schedules
  12. high / response
    Ratio schedules are used when one wants to generate a ___ rate of responding and can monitor each ___.
  13. FR/VR/it is simpler to administer
    ___-Ratio is more commonly used than ___-Ratio in behavioral programs, because  
  14. Progressive Ratio
    schedule where a reinforcer occurs each time a set number of resoponses of a particular type are emitted; the ratio requirement increases by a specific amount after each reinforcer
  15. Break(ing) Point
    level at which an individual stops responding completely
  16. longer/pause
    The typical effect of a PR schedule is an increasingly ___ pause after each successive reinforcer and an indefinitely long ___ at the break point
  17. Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
    schedule in which a reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after a fixed period of time
  18. Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule
    schedule in which a reinforcer is presented following the first instance of a specific response after an interval of time, and the length of the interval changes unpredictably from one reinforcer to the next

    *a response is reinforced after unpredictable intervals of time*
  19. Limited Hold (/LH)
    a finite amount of time after a reinforcer becomes available that a response will produce it

    *a deadline for meeting the response requirement of a schedule of reinforcement*
  20. Fixed-Duration (FD) Schedule
    a schedule in which a reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time
  21. Value
    The ___ of an FD schedule is the amount of time that a behavior must be engaged in continuously before reinforcement occurs
  22. Variable-Duration (VD) Schedule
    a schedule in which a reinforcer is presented only if a behavior occurs continuously for a fixed period of time, and the interval of time from reinforcer to reinforcer changes unpredictably
  23. Resistance to Extinction
    RTE
  24. Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
    the schedules of reinforcement that are in effect when each of two+ behaviors is reinforced on different schedules at the same time
  25. Ratio schedules
    ___ ___ make reinforcement contingent on a certain number of responses being completed
  26. Simple Interval Schedules
    ___ ___ ___ make reinforcement contingent on a response being made after a certain time period has elapsed
  27. Interval Schedules
    ___ ___ with Limited Hold make reinforcement contingent on a response occuring within a limited period of time after reinforcement becomes available
  28. Duration Schedules
    ___ ___ make reinforcement contingent on a response being made for a certain continuous period of time
  29. Differential Reinforcement of Low (DRL) Rates
    a schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is presented ONLY if a particular response occurs at a low rate
  30. Limited Responding DRL
    a schedule that specifies the maximum allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occur

    (i.e. 50 min with 3 or less "talk outs")
  31. Spaced-Responding DRL
    a schedule in which a specified behavior must not occur during a specified interval; and after the interval has passed, an instance of that behavior must then occur for a reinforcer to occur

    *instances of a specific behavior must be spaced out over time*
  32. Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding (DR0)
    a schedule in which a reinforcer is presented ONLY if a specified response does NOT occur during a specified period of time
  33. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible (DRI) Behavior
    withholding reinforcers for a particular response and reinforcing an incompatible response
  34. Incompatible Response
    a response that cannot be emitted at the same time as the target response

    (i.e. sitting and standing)
  35. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative (DRA) Behavior
    extinction of a problem behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior that is topographically dissimilar to (but not necessarily incompatible with) the problem behavior
  36. Antecedent Stimuli
    the stimuli that exist just prior to the occurence of a particular behavior
  37. Antecedents

    Behavior

    Consequences
    ABC Assessment
  38. Stimulus Control
    the degree of correlation between the occurence of a particular stimulus and the occurence of a subsequent response
  39. Effective (Good) Stimulus Control
    a strong correlation between the occurence of a particular stimulus and a particular response
  40. Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
    a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced

    *a cue that a particular response will pay off*

    (aka: stimulus for reinforcement)
  41. Delta Stimulus (S)
    a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced

    *a cue that a particular response will NOT pay off*

    (aka: stimulus for extinction)
  42. Stimulus Discrimination Training
    the PROCEDURE of reinforcing a response in the presence of an SD and extinguishing that response in the presence of an S
  43. Stimulus Discrimination
    a response occurs to an SD, not to an S
  44. Stimulus Generalization
    the PROCEDURE of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the EFFECT of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another situation or stimulus.
  45. Concept
    stimulus (equivalence) class is commonly known as ____
  46. Common-Element Stimulus Class
    a set of stimuli, all of which have one or more physical characteristics in common
  47. Stimulus Equivalence Class
    a set of completely dissimilar stimuli that an individual has learned to group or match together
  48. Conceptual Behavior
    when an individual emits an appropriate response to all members of a common-element stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli that DO NOT belong to the class
  49. Stimulus Generalization
    occurs if a response that has been reinforced to one stimulus occurs to a different stimulus (due to unlearned generalization, the learning of a common-element stimulus class, or the learning of a stimulus equivalence class)
  50. error
    During discrimination training, a response to an S or a failure to respond to an SD is typically referred to as a(n) ___.
  51. Contingency-Shaped Behavior
    behavior that develops because of its immediate consequences
  52. Rule
    a SITUATION in which a BEHAVIOR will lead to a CONSEQUENCE
  53. Rule-Governed Behavior
    behavior that is controlled by the statement of a rule
  54. Fading
    the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus
  55. Errorless Discrimination Training/ Errorless Learning
    the use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur
  56. Dimension (of a stimulus)
    any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum
  57. Prompt
    aka: a starting stimulus

    a supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the liklihood that a desired behavior will occur, but that is not the final desired stimulus to control that behavior
  58. Physical Prompts (Guidance)
    instructor behaviors that consist of guiding the learning through touch
  59. Gestural Prompts
    instructor behaviors that are certain motions that a teacher makes (i.e. pointing to the correct cue)
  60. Modeling Prompts
    instructor behaviors that occur when the correct behavior is demonstrated
  61. Verbal Prompts
    verbal hints (cues)
  62. Environmental Prompts
    consists of alterations of the physical environment in a manner that will evoke the desired behavior
  63. Extra-Stimulus Prompt
    something that is added to the environment to make a correct response more likely

    *rearranging the physical surroundings
  64. Within-Stimulus Prompt
    an alteration of the SD or the S to make their characteristics more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate
  65. Shaping
    the development of a new behavior by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximations of that behavior until the new behavior occurs

    AKA the method of successive approximations
  66. Topography (form)
    physical movements involved in the behavior
  67. Frequency (amount)
    number of instances of the behavior in a given time
  68. Duration (amount)
    continuous amount of time that a behavior lasts
  69. Latency
    time between the controlling stimulus and the behavior
  70. Intensity (force)
    amount of energy expended on the behavior
  71. Behavioral Chain
    a consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in which the last response is typically followed by reinforcement

    AKA Stimulus-Response Chain
  72. Total-Task Presentation
    method where an individual attempts all of the steps from the beginning to the end of the chain on each trial and continues with total task trials until that person learns the chain
  73. Backward Chaining
    method where the last step is taught first, then the next-to-last step is taught and linked to the last step, then the third-from-last step is taught and linked to the last two steps, and so on, progressing backward toward the beginning of the chain
  74. Forward Chaining
    method that teaches the initial step of the sequence first, then teaches and links together the first and second steps, then the first three steps, and so on until the entire chain is acquired
  75. Gradual Change Procedures
    chaining, fading, and shaping are sometimes called ___ ___ ___; because each procedure involves progressing gradually through a series of steps to produce a new behavior
  76. Task Analysis
    the process of breaking down a task into smaller steps or component responses to facilitate training
  77. Adventitious Chain
    a behavioral chain that has some components that are functional in producing the reinforcer and at least one component that is not
  78. Superstitious Component
    a nonfunctional component of a chain

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