Pharmacology Exam 2 - Antibiotics

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levzahav9
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Pharmacology Exam 2 - Antibiotics
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2013-02-19 19:19:56
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Pharmacology Exam Antibiotics antimicrobials Dr
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Prep for Exam 2 in pharmacology
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  1. Antibiotics- Definition
    Medication used to treat bacteria
  2. Ideally, ___ beginning antibiotic therapy, the suspected areas of infection should be ___ to identify the causative organism and potential antibiotic susceptibilities.
    • before
    • cultured
  3. What are the classes of antibiotics
    • 1. Sulfonamides
    • 2. Penicillins
    • 3. Cephalosporins
    • 4. Carbapenems
    • 5. Macrolides
    • 6. Tetracyclines
    • 7. Aminoglycosides
    • 8. Quinolones
  4. Two main types of antibiotic therapies are
    • Empiric
    • Prophylactic
  5. ___ Therapy is the treatment of infection before specific culture information has been reported or obtained and is usually broad coverage
    Empiric
  6. ___ therapy is treatment with antibiotics to prevent an infection.
    prophylactic
  7. You're an MD and prescribe a broad antibiotic first, before the culture results. Which antibiotic therapy did you use first, empiric or prophylactic?
    empiric
  8. You've prescribed an antibiotic for a patient  before they undergo surgery to prevent a staph infection. Which antibiotic therapy did you use, empiric or prophylactic?
    prophylactic
  9. After empiric therapy, cultured come back and you change to a more specific antibiotic, to prevent bacteria from creating resistance. This is called ___ therapy.
    stream-lined
  10. What is a therapeutic response to antibiotic therapy?
    decrease in specific signs and symptoms of infection are noted
  11. signs and symptoms of infection
    • fever
    • elevated WBC
    • redness
    • inflammation
    • drainage
    • pain
  12. what is a sub-therapeutic response to antibiotic therapy?
    S&S of infection do not improve
  13. By when should you expect to see improvement with an infection after you start antibiotic treatments?
    48 hrs
  14. a superinfection occurs...
    when antibiotic therapy destroys beneficial resident species, other microbes that were once in small numbers begin to overgrow and cause disease.
  15. how microbes develop antibiotic resistance
    • Microbes develop resistance to certain drugs due to genetic mutations or by acquiring genes from other microbes via processes like conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
    • Microbes can counteract the effects of drugs by: 1) blocking the uptake of drugs or using drug pumps; 2) degrading or inactivating the drug; 3) altering the structure of the drug; or 4) altering the shape of the drug's target receptors.
  16. how humans contribute to antibiotic resistance
    Humans contribute to the development and spread of drug resistance by: 1) not using the appropriate drug for a particular type of infection; 2) not finishing medication or taking it properly; or 3) using antimicrobial drugs when they are not needed.
  17. two main allergic reactions occur with which two antibiotics?
    penicillin and sulfa
  18. Four common MOA of antibiotics
    • interference with cell wall synthesis
    • interference with protein synthesis
    • interference with DNA replication
    • acting as a metabolite to disrupt critical metabolic reactions inside the bacterial cell
  19. two main actions of antibiotics
    • Bactericidal
    • Bacteriostatic
  20. bactericidal action
    kills bacteria
  21. bacteriostatic action
    • inhibits the growth of susceptible bacteria rather than killing them immediately. 
    • Will eventually lead to death
    • Meant to help the immune system, but a good immune system is necessary for this to work
  22. sepsis
    • systemic infection arising from bacterial toxins in the circulating blood or bacteria reproducing and spreading through the circulating blood
    • leads to multi-organ failure
    • very difficult to recover from
  23. Sulfonamides MOA
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Prevent synthesis of folic acid required for synthesis of purines and nucleic acid
    • Do not affect human cells or certain bacteria—they can use preformed folic acid
  24. Sulfonamides: Indications
    • Treatment of UTIs caused by susceptible strains of: Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus
    • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
    • Upper respiratory tract infections
    • Other uses such as uncomplicated UTIs
  25. PCP
    • pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    • common in immunocompromised PTs (i.e. HIV, chemo, liver transfer...)
  26. Sulfonamides: Combination Products Indicationstrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)
    • IV or PO
    • Used to treat UTIs, PCP, otitis media, other conditions
  27. Sulfonamides: Nursing Implications
    • Should be taken with at least 2000mL of fluid per day unless contraindicated
    • Causes Photosensitivity, so tanning contraindicated
    • reduces the effects of oral contraceptives
    • oral forms should be taken with food or milk to reduce GI upset
  28. Sulfonamides: Side effects and in which body systems
    • Blood: Hemolytic and aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia
    • Integumentary: Photosensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, epidermal necrolysis
    • GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pancreatitis
    • Other: convulsions, crystalluria, toxic nephrosis, headache, peripheral neuritis, urticaria
  29. ___ ___ result from excessive destruction of RBCs, or hemolysis, leading to a low erythrocyte count and low total hemoglobin. They have many causes, including genetic defects, immune reactions, changes in blood chemistry, the presence of toxins in blood, infections such as malaria, transfusion reactions, erythroblastosis fetalis.
    hemolytic anemia
  30. ___ anemia is related to impairment or failure of bone marrow function, lading to loss of stem cells and pancytopenia. It can be a temporary or permanent condition depending on the cause.
    aplastic
  31. pancytopenia
    decreased numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in the blood.
  32. exfoliative dermatitis
    widespread scaling of the skin, often with itching (pruritus), skin redness (erythroderma), and hair loss.
  33. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    a systemic skin disease that produces fevers and lesions of the oral, conjunctival, and vaginal membranes. It is marked by cutaneous rash that is often widespread and severe.
  34. crystalluria
    refers to crystals found in the urine when performing a urine test.
  35. urticaria
    • hives
    • results from a Type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly caused by ingested substances such as shellfish or certain fruits or drugs.

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