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For _____ to be generated, a disturbance in air molecules must occur, causing the molecules to move out of their normal state.
When a sound is generated and air molecules collide, it causes an increased area of density and there fore positive pressure. This process is also called ______.
When a sound causes molecules to run into adjacent molecules it creates an increased density in this area. When the displaced molecules will swing back in their original direction, this area is now lower in density. This process is also called ______.
When a sound is being created and maintained, molecules are displaced. What force pulls the molecules back to their original position?
What forces causes the molecules to overshoot their target when maintaining a sound?
Each time a molecule swings back and forth around its original position, it loses ______, which in turn causes the sound to be _______ and the molecules returned to their original position.
This term refers to the damping of a wave, with diminishing changes in air pressure due to friction.
- sidenote: Materials that are soft and porous and/or have rough surfaces absorb
- more sound energy than materials that are hard or dense and/or
- havesmooth surfaces.
This term refers to some portion of the sound that is not transmitted or absorbed. It bounces back from the surface of the boundary and travels in the opposite direction of the incident wave.
- sidenote: A hard, smooth surface is more reflective than a soft or rough surface.
This term refers to the combining of 2 or more waves. If the areas of compression and rarefaction of the two waves combine at exactly the same time and the same moment in space, the amplitude of the resulting wave will be doubled. When two areas of high pressure combine, the resulting pressure is higher. If two areas of low pressure combine, the pressure is lower.
This term refers to a sound that lasts slightly longer because of interference. This occurs when a reflected sound wave arrives at your ear slightly delayed in time compared with the arrival of the incident wave at the same point. The amount of time it is delayed is dependent on the distance between the reflective surface and your ear.
This term refers to a wave in which every cycle takes the same amount of time to occur as every other cycle, and in which the extent of the pressure changes is equal for all cycles. Perceptually, this sounds musical.
This term refers to a wave in which individual cycles do not take the same amount of time to occur. Perceptually, this sounds like noise.
This term refers to a wave consisting of two or more frequencies, aperiodicand periodic.
How is human speech a mix of periodic and aperiodic complex sounds?
All human sounds are complex. Vowels are complex periodic sounds.Voiceless consonants are complex aperiodic sounds. Voiced stop and fricative consonants are a combination of periodic and aperiodic complex sounds.
What is the decibel scale's advantage in measuring sound intensity?
- The decibel scale takes into account the amplitudes and intensities of sounds in relation to how we perceive sounds. The decibel scale is logarithmic, which means it compresses the trillion intensities into a scale with far fewer levels. With a logarithmic scale, the units increase by greater and greater amounts. These amounts cannot be added or subtracted because they are not equal.
- The decibel scale is also a ratio scale, meaning it compares any target sound with a standard reference sound. Its major advantage is that it condenses huge ranges of intensities.
This term refers to vibration that is driven by a period force at its natural frequency.
How does an acoustic resonator act as a filter?
A musical instrument, like a guitar, is an acoustic resonator that filters out some frequencies and allows others to remain when the air contained inside it is set into vibration by another action of vibration (plucking the string). In this example, the guitar amplifies sounds that are closer to its resonant frequency and dampens sounds that are farther from its resonant frequency, which allows us to produce different sounds.
Frequency and amplitude variables are useful in what clinical situations?
- 1. diagnostic decisions
- 2. to supplement the perceptual judgements of voice.
- 3. to assess the outcome/effectiveness of treatment
The fundamental frequencey and Average Fundamental Frequency of men drops rapidly at what age, and why?
It drops after puberty due to the enlargement and maturity of the larynx, which causes the vocal folds to become longer and thicker.
By 60 or 70 years old, yhe fundamental frequencey and Average Fundamental Frequency of males increases due to what?
Thinning of the vocal folds
Why do infants have a very high fundamental frequencey and Average Fundamental Frequency in comparison to adolescents and adults?
Because of their short, thin vocal folds and the increased rate at which they cycle.
Why does a woman's average fundamental frequency decrease around 60 or 70years?
Because of hormonal changes and a thickening of the vocal folds.
Why is a voice range profile considered a snapshot of a person's phonatory behavior?
- It plots a person's maximum phonational frequency range in Hertz (falsetto to bass in musical terms) against their dynamic range in decibels (softest to loudest perceptually) at one moment in time.
- *a VPR determines the physiological limits of voice and can detect a pathology present
What are 2 advantages in measuring frequency and amplitude in people with voice disorders?
- 1. Supplement any perceptual impressions of the voice
- 2. The characteristics can be used as a measurement of successful treatment
How are frequency and amplitude measurements used to detect early laryngeal changes in neurological diseases?
These measurements can detect changes in the voice even before they are heard perceptually. If you sound normal but have a small frequency range (you should have a wide one), it can be a sign of laryngeal weakness, which is a hallmark of ALS. In ALS, early intervention is key to maintaining the patients vocal function as long as possible.
This term corresponds perceptually to loudness.
The pulmonary system is composed of what structures?
The pulmonary system is made up of the lungs and the airways and subdivided into two parts: upper and lower respiratory systems.
What structures make up the upper respiratory system?
the oral and nasal cavity and the pharynx
What structures make up the lower respiratory system?
larynx, the bronchial system and the lungs *Bronchial tree: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and lungs
Lungs contain very little muscle but are able to expand and contract in conjunction with the thorax due to what?
- pleural linkage
- *The negative pressure in the pleural space link the lungs and thoracic cavity together.
The lungs are lined with ____? And the thorax is lined with ______?
visceral pleura and parietal pleura. The space between the two is the plueral space where negative pressure resides, linking the two together.
How does our breathing change over our life span?
- The BPM decreases with age due to structural maturity of the respiratory system.
- *Infants: 40-70 BPM
- *Adults: 12-18 BPM (quiet breathing)
- *Males: 21 BPM, Females: 30 BPM (heavy activity)
Lung volumes and capacities change how over our lifespan?
Lung volumes and capacities increase from infancy to puberty (maturation)m then stabilize into adulthood. In old age, the volumes and capacities decrease (due to costal cartilages ossify and calcify, thoracic shape changes, and rate of respiratory muscle contraction decrease)
How does our speech breathing change over our lifespan?
- When we reach old age, the following occurs:
- - inhale more deeply per breath
- - use more air per syllable
- - inhale more often
- - waste more air prior to phonation
- - speak slower to maintain intelligibility
What is the main difference in location of air intake when breathing for speech vs. breathing for life?
life breathing typically occurs thru the nose. Breathing for speech occurs thru the oral cavity.
What is the main difference inhalation and exhalation times when breathing for speech vs. breathing for life?
- Life breathing: the interval time for inhalation is nearly the same as exhalation, with inhalation consuming 40%, ex consuming 60%. Each breath in and out takes about 2 sec.
- Speech breathing: inhalation times shortens to about 10% of the total cycle whereas exhale time extends to about 90%. Exhale for speech can last up to 20-25seconds.
What is the main difference in the volume of air inhaled per cycle when breathing for speech vs. breathing for life?
Life breathing: we do not inhale as much air as our lungs are capable of holding but only around 10% of that amount. (about 500 mL)
Speech breathing: the air inhaled depends on the utterance, volume is usually doubled though (1,000 mL). Speaking is initiated at volumes above REL and within volumes that are about twice as much as quiet, tidal breathing.
What is the main difference in muscle activity for inhalation and exhalation when breathing for speech vs. breathing for life?
Inspiration: in speech and life breathing is an active process requiring contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs.
Exhalation: passive for life breathing, active for speech breathing.
Differences of life breathing & speech breathing for someone with spastic CP, who doesn't have much control over the body, include:
- *Location of air intake: same for normal person.
- *Inhalation vs. Exhalation times: for life, inhale 60% and exhale 40%, same as normal person for speech breathing.
- *Volume of air inhaled each cycle: life is 500CC 10%VC, speech is variable, depending on lengthand loudness of utt 20-25VC.
- *Muscle activity for exhalation: life breathing is passive, speech breathing is active
What is a resting expiratory level?
- a state of equilibrium within the respiratory system in which air is neither entering nor exiting the system (the alveolar pressure and atmospheric pressures are equal).
- *occurs every time you complete a breath in or breath out
Can a patient realistically support speech if they can sustain a steady stream of sublgottal air pressure of 5cm H2O for 5 seconds?
If a patient can sustain a steady stream of subglottal air pressure of 5cm H2Ofor 5 seconds, the respiratory system may be sufficient to support speech. This is because the amount of air needed to produce speech is not much more than the amount needed for normal breathing at rest, which is around 20% vital capacity. However even if patients can perform the static task of sustaining the steady stream of subglottal air pressure, they may not be able to coordinate the dynamic respiratory maneuvers that are required for speech breathing.
How does the rigidity that is the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease affect respiratory and speech production?
The rigidity of chest wall muscles results in reduced movement of the rib cage and more displacement of the abdomen. The limited rib cage movement causes a reduced vital capacity. The breathy, weak voice that is associated with PD speech is due in part to the decreased respiratory support.
What are two problems in respiratory and speech function in individuals who are mechanically ventilated?
The individual may be unable to control the timing of ventilator cycles. The tracheal pressures generated by the ventilator are abnormally high and change rapidly.
Why are some of the behavioral techniques used in voice therapy based on modifying respiratory function?
By focusing on breathing, tensions that are generalized throughout the chest, as well as the larynx and vocal tract, can be reduced. The systems involved in speech are closely intertwined and tensions in one area can affect the other systems.
What are the respiratory characteristics of someone with spastic CP? (hypertonic)
- - Inhalation is shallow
- - Expirations are forced and uncontrolled
- - Breathing can get worse as the child develops due to their attempt to compensate for the abnormal muscle tone.
What are the respiratory characteristics of someone with athetoid CP? (involuntary movements)
- - Irregular and uncontrolled
- - Involuntary bursts of air during inhalation and/or exhalation
- - Children become more posturally stable as they mature so their speech may become more intelligible
What are the respiratory characteristics of someone with ataxic CP? (lacks coordination)
Irregular rate, rhythm and depth of tidal breathing
What is the similarity in respiratory function of patients with cerebellar disease and those with cervical spinal cord injury?
reduced vital capacity
What the differences in respiratory function of patients with cerebellar disease and those with cervical spinal cord injury?
- Cerebellar disease:
- 1. Abrupt changes in the motion of chest wall
- 2. Unpredictable pitch and loudness
- 3. Utterances initiated below normal lungvolume
- 4. Inspiratory gasps due to breakdown in control of the outgoing airflow for speech
- 5. Initiate utterances below normal lung levels
- 6. Speech sounds “robotic”, syllables produced with excess and equal stress
- Cervical spinal cord injury:
- 1. Reduced IRV
- 2. Reduced ERV
- 3. Reduced loudness
- 4. Difficulty generating adequate pressures and flows
- 5. Imprecise consonant production
- 6. Abnormally short breath groups
- 7. Slow inspirations