found in patients with hyporthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism, meaning normal thyroid function.
In many countries, it is due to iodine deficiency- the thyroid is making ever effort to make thyroid hormone, but there isn't any iodine.
Not a big problem in the U.S.- most available salt is iodized, with the amount of salt consumed in American diet, iodine deficiency is rare.
Low basal metabolic rate
Decreased respiratory rate
Low heart rate (bradycardia)
High basal metabolic rate
Increased respiratory rate
High heart rate (tachycardia)
congenial hypothroidism and myxedema
are both hypothyroid disorders
congenial hypothyroidism occurs in childhood
myxedema in adulthood.
formerly called cretinism
In addition to the common symptoms of hypothyroidism, the patient demonstrates a low growth rate and mental retardation, due to the synergistic relationship between the the thyroid hormones and human growth hormone
this decreases the development of the nervous and skeletal systems
Insufficient thyroxin during adulthood
causes dry brittle hair dry skin due to decreased perspiration, edema, lethargy, low BMR, temperature, and heart rate
Patients gain weight easily
Patients are not mentally retarded, but they do show some diminished inteligence
the most common form of hyperthyroidism
an autoimmune disease that results in the production of antibodies against TSH receptors
These antibodies act like TSH, so they stimulate thyroid hormone production
Causes nervousness, diminished body weight, diarrhea, and protrusion of the eyes do to periorbital edema.
made by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid
An increase in blood calcium levels will stimulate the parafollicular cells to secrete calcitonin
It inhibits osteoclastic activity and uptake of calcium and phosphates in the bone matrix
this will cause a decease in blood calcium and phosphate levels.