Biomed mod.14 obj.19-20

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Biomed mod.14 obj.19-20
2013-02-14 17:17:44
Biomed mod 14 obj 19 20

Biomed mod.14 obj.19-20
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  1. Goiter
    • simply an enlargement of he thyroid
    • found in patients with hyporthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism, meaning normal thyroid function.
    • In many countries, it is due to iodine deficiency- the thyroid is making ever effort to make thyroid hormone, but there isn't any iodine.
    • Not a big problem in the U.S.- most available salt is iodized, with the amount of salt consumed in American diet, iodine deficiency is rare.
  2. Thyroid Dysfunction:
    • Low basal metabolic rate
    • Cold intolerant
    • Constipation
    • Decreased respiratory rate
    • Low heart rate (bradycardia)
    • Weight gain
    • Lethargic
  3. Thyroid Dysfunction:
    • High basal metabolic rate 
    • Heat intolerant
    • Diarrhea
    • Increased respiratory rate
    • High heart rate (tachycardia)
    • Weight loss
    • Anxious
  4. congenial hypothroidism and myxedema
    • are both hypothyroid disorders 
    • congenial hypothyroidism occurs in childhood
    • myxedema in adulthood.
  5. Congenital hypothyroidism 
    • formerly called cretinism
    • In addition to the common symptoms of hypothyroidism, the patient demonstrates a low growth rate and mental retardation, due to the synergistic relationship between the the thyroid hormones and human growth hormone
    • this decreases the development of the nervous and skeletal systems
  6. Myxedema
    • Insufficient thyroxin during adulthood
    • causes dry brittle hair dry skin due to decreased perspiration, edema, lethargy, low BMR, temperature, and heart rate
    • Patients gain weight easily 
    • Patients are not mentally retarded, but they do show some diminished inteligence
  7. Graves disease
    • the most common form of hyperthyroidism 
    • an autoimmune disease that results in the production of antibodies against TSH receptors
    • These antibodies act like TSH, so they stimulate thyroid hormone production
    • Causes nervousness, diminished body weight, diarrhea, and protrusion of the eyes do to periorbital edema.
  8. Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin)
    • made by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid
    • An increase in blood calcium levels will stimulate the parafollicular cells to secrete calcitonin
    • It inhibits osteoclastic activity and uptake of calcium and phosphates in the bone matrix
    • this will cause a decease in blood calcium and phosphate levels.