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- simply an enlargement of he thyroid
- found in patients with hyporthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism, meaning normal thyroid function.
- In many countries, it is due to iodine deficiency- the thyroid is making ever effort to make thyroid hormone, but there isn't any iodine.
- Not a big problem in the U.S.- most available salt is iodized, with the amount of salt consumed in American diet, iodine deficiency is rare.
- Low basal metabolic rate
- Cold intolerant
- Decreased respiratory rate
- Low heart rate (bradycardia)
- Weight gain
- High basal metabolic rate
- Heat intolerant
- Increased respiratory rate
- High heart rate (tachycardia)
- Weight loss
congenial hypothroidism and myxedema
- are both hypothyroid disorders
- congenial hypothyroidism occurs in childhood
- myxedema in adulthood.
- formerly called cretinism
- In addition to the common symptoms of hypothyroidism, the patient demonstrates a low growth rate and mental retardation, due to the synergistic relationship between the the thyroid hormones and human growth hormone
- this decreases the development of the nervous and skeletal systems
- Insufficient thyroxin during adulthood
- causes dry brittle hair dry skin due to decreased perspiration, edema, lethargy, low BMR, temperature, and heart rate
- Patients gain weight easily
- Patients are not mentally retarded, but they do show some diminished inteligence
- the most common form of hyperthyroidism
- an autoimmune disease that results in the production of antibodies against TSH receptors
- These antibodies act like TSH, so they stimulate thyroid hormone production
- Causes nervousness, diminished body weight, diarrhea, and protrusion of the eyes do to periorbital edema.
- made by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid
- An increase in blood calcium levels will stimulate the parafollicular cells to secrete calcitonin
- It inhibits osteoclastic activity and uptake of calcium and phosphates in the bone matrix
- this will cause a decease in blood calcium and phosphate levels.