Biological Effects of Radiation

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Biological Effects of Radiation
2013-02-14 21:32:02

Cell Structure Effects on Radiation on cell components Radiation Syndromes DNA structure Major Organ systems of the human body
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  1. What are the 3 major parts of a cell?
    • a. Cell Membrane
    • b. Cytoplasm
    • c. Nucleus
  2. Cell Membrane description?
    • a. 100 angstroms thick
    • b. living functional part of the cell
    • c. It helps regulate the concentration of water, salts, and organic matter within the cell. 
    • d. It actively transports K ions into the cell and opposes the entrance of Na ions. 
    • e. It is capable of "active transport".
    • f. All food entering and all waste leaving must pass through it.
  3. Cytoplasm description?
    • a. It is a jelly like substance in which the nucleus is suspended. It is encased within the cell membrane.
    • b. It is an aqueous solution of soluble proteins and salts.
  4. What is the "power plant" of the cell?
  5. Mitochondria description?
    • a. Contained in the cytoplasm.
    • b. One of many small functional units called "organelles".
    • c. It uses oxygen for oxidation of essential food stuffs and the formation of carbon dioxide.
    • d. The metabolic energy released is captured in the chemical bonds of a special energy-storing molecule known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
    • e. ATP supplies the energy for all the activities of the cell, including reproduction and repair.
  6. What contains the digestive enzymes of the cell?
  7. Lysosome description?
    • a. Contains the digestive enzymes that break down large molecules, such as fats, proteins, and nucleic acids, into smaller constituents that can be oxidized by the oxidative enzymes of the mitochondria.
    • b. The lysosomal membrane isolates the digestive enzymes from the rest of the cytoplasm.
    • c. Rupture of this membrane and release of the enzymes leads to the dissolution of the cell.
  8. What is the "control center" of the cell?
  9. Nucleus description?
    • a.It's small and usually oval shaped and each cell has one.
    • b.It directs cellular activity.
    • c.It contains the hereditary factors (genes) responsible for the traits of the animal or plant.
    • d. The membrane surrounding the nucleus and separating it from the cytoplasm is called the nuclear membrane.
    • e. This membrane regulates the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.
  10. What are Nucleoli?
    Spherical bodies which are found within the cell nucleus.
  11. Nucleoli description?
    • a. spherical bodies within the nucleus.
    • b. They are packed with tiny granules similar to the rybosomes of the cytoplasm.
    • c. they are rich in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and appear to be active centers of the protein and RNA synthesis.
  12. What contains the master blueprint for the cell?
    DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)
  13. DNA description?
    • a. It is the most important material making up the chromosomes and serves as the master blueprint for the cell.
    • b. The nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA) function together to produce the cells proteins.